Malaria in a holoendemic area of Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study
A malaria survey of the entire population of a village in Western Burkina Faso (n=1,561) was conducted to assess malaria endemicity. The study population was examined for symptoms characteristic of malaria including fever, anaemia, splenomegaly and parasites present in thick blood films. In the overall study population, the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. infection by microscopic examination of thick blood films was 79.0% (1,233/1,561). In a subcohort with 201 individuals, PCR techniques found a prevalence rate for all Plasmodium spp. of 92.0% (185/201), while microscopy found one of 80.6% (162/201). A combination of both methods gives a rate of 95.5% (192/201). Though univariate logistic analyses of elevated body temperature, anaemia, splenomegaly and age showed them all to be predictors of or risk factors for an infection, only elevated body temperature and age were predictors in multivariate logistic analysis. However, the symptom of splenomegaly did show a highly significant association with infection by multiple species of Plasmodium.
KeywordsMalaria Plasmodium Mixed Infection Malarial Parasite Demographic Surveillance System
Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Ethical Committee at the University of Heidelberg and the local Ethical Board at the CRSN. The traditional village leaders of Bourasso were also asked for permission before the commencement of the study. The authors are very grateful to the people of Bourasso for their participation in this study and their continuous hospitality during the field phase of our survey. Special thanks go to Justin Tiendrebéogo, Adama Compaoré, Dr. Corneille Traoré, Dr. Xavier Pitroipa, Wendyam A. Guigemdé, Ido Kolé, Issaka Zombra, Philomon Traoré, Quattara Bassiriki, Christophe Kadewa, Samuel Seni and Michael Scheiwein for their valuable contributions. We thank Thomas Junghanss and Petra Rohrbach for discussions and comments. The study was supported by the Sonderforschungsbereich SFB 544 “Kontrolle tropischer Infektionskrankheiten”.
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