Parasitology Research

, 98:38 | Cite as

The association of Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana with diarrheal stools in Zambian school-age children

  • Thaddeus K. GraczykEmail author
  • Clive K. Shiff
  • Leena Tamang
  • Fair Munsaka
  • Anna M. Beitin
  • William J. Moss
Original Article


To determine the prevalence of endoparasites and their association with diarrhea, a survey was conducted in the Southern Province of Zambia that used conventional and molecular techniques applied to stool and urine samples from school-age children (n=93). Almost half of the stools (49.5%) were diarrhetic. The overall prevalence of Endolimax nana, Schistosoma haematobium, Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 64.3, 59.1, 53.8, 19.4, 8.6, 8.6, and 1.1%, respectively. Only the associations between infection with B. hominis and E. nana with diarrhea were statistically significant. Although B. hominis and E. nana are considered to be nonpathogenic organisms, this study demonstrated that they can be associated with diarrhea in children when they occur at high prevalence and intensity. This survey supports the recent evidence that B. hominis and E. nana infections are associated with deficient sanitation and low hygiene standards and can contribute to diarrhea in children in developing countries.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Chronic Diarrhea Schistosoma Haematobium Haematobium Infection Enterocytozoon Bieneusi 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Zambian health officials and employees of The Malaria Institute at Macha, Zambia, for facilitating this study. The study was supported by the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thaddeus K. Graczyk
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Clive K. Shiff
    • 2
  • Leena Tamang
    • 1
  • Fair Munsaka
    • 3
  • Anna M. Beitin
    • 4
  • William J. Moss
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health SciencesJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Microbiology and ImmunologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.The Chitongo Rural Health CentreNamwalaZambia
  4. 4.School of Public HealthYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  5. 5.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA

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