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Parasitology Research

, Volume 93, Issue 2, pp 159–170 | Cite as

Food-borne intestinal trematodiases in humans

  • Bernard FriedEmail author
  • Thaddeus K. Graczyk
  • Leena Tamang
Review

Abstract

Food-borne trematodiases still remain a public health problem world-wide, despite changes in eating habits, alterations in social and agricultural practices, health education, industrialization, environmental alteration, and broad-spectrum anthelmintics. Food-borne trematodiases usually occur focally, are still persistently endemic in some parts of the world, and are most prevalent in remote rural places among school-age children, low-wage earners, and women of child-bearing age. Intestinal fluke diseases are aggravated by socio-economic factors such as poverty, malnutrition, an explosively growing free-food market, a lack of sufficient food inspection and sanitation, other helminthiases, and declining economic conditions. Control programs implemented for food-borne zoonoses and sustained in endemic areas are not fully successful for intestinal food-borne trematodiases because of centuries-old traditions of eating raw or insufficiently cooked food, widespread zoonotic reservoirs, promiscuous defecation, and the use of “night soil” (human excrement collected from latrines) as fertilizer. This review examines food-borne intestinal trematodiases associated with species in families of the Digenea: Brachylaimidae, Diplostomidae, Echinostomatidae, Fasciolidae, Gastrodiscidae, Gymnophallidae, Heterophyidae, Lecithodendriidae, Microphallidae, Nanophyetidae, Paramphistomatidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Strigeidae. Because most of the implicated species are in the Echinostomatidae and Heterophyidae, emphasis in the review is placed on species in these families.

Keywords

Intermediate Host Praziquantel Ventral Sucker Genital Pore Niclosamide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

We thank Ms. Jessica L. Schneck for editorial assistance in preparing this review.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard Fried
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thaddeus K. Graczyk
    • 2
    • 3
  • Leena Tamang
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyLafayette CollegeEastonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public HealthJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public HealthJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

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