The involvement of the cysteine proteases of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in excystment
The effects of trypsin, bile, trypsin-bile, pepsin, dithiothreitol (DTT) and metacercarial excretory-secretory product (ESP) on the in vitro excystment of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were investigated. The majority of metacercariae excysted immediately in trypsin-bile in PBS solution, a process which was complete after 30 min of incubation. When incubated in metacercarial ESP in PBS, excystment was potentiated in the presence of 5 mM DTT, but was inhibited dose-dependently by a cysteine protease inhibitor, iodoacetic acid. Two active protease bands of 28 and 40 kDa were identified in the ESP of metacercariae by gelatin substrate SDS-PAGE. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the larvae in solutions of DTT and ESP migrated through a small hole on the metacercarial wall, whereas larvae were liberated by entire wall disruption in trypsin solution. These results suggest that trypsin is a major extrinsic factor of the rapid excystment of C. sinensis metacercariae, and that endogenous cysteine proteases are also involved in metacercarial excystment.
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