Study of specific IgG subclass antibodies for diagnosis of Gnathostoma spinigerum
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Gnathostoma spinigerum infection is endemic in Thailand and many Asian countries. Current diagnosis is the skin test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgG antibody against the G. spinigerum third-stage larvae (L3), but cross-reactivity is common. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of anti-G. spinigerum L3 IgG subclass antibodies for diagnosis of 43 patients with gnathostomiasis. The majority of patients with gnathostomiasis (91%) had eosinophilia. While the anti-G. spinigerum L3 IgG1 antibody provided the highest sensitivity (98%), the anti-G. spinigerum L3 IgG2 antibody had the highest specificity (88%). The ELISA that detected anti-G. spinigerum L3 IgG1 antibody could be a reliable laboratory screening test, while anti-G. spinigerum L3 IgG2 antibody could be used to confirm the diagnosis.