Repellent efficacy of a combination containing imidacloprid and permethrin against sand flies (Phlebotomus papatasi) in dogs
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Infection in dogs and humans with the protozoan parasite Leishmania are widespread in tropical and subtropical countries around the globe. Sand flies of the order Phlebotomus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World function as the vector of this disease. In dogs, skin lesions are the most prominent signs of canine leishmaniasis, besides other complex underlying manifestations. To prevent dogs from sand fly bites and thus transmission of Leishmania, an imidacloprid 10% w/v / permethrin 50% w/v combination was evaluated for its insecticidal and repellent efficacy. Treated and untreated control dogs were exposed weekly to about 200 female Phlebotomus papatasi for a period of four weeks. Dead and alive sand flies were counted for surviving rate evaluation and feeding rate was determined for repellency evaluation. The repellent efficacy was 94.6% (day 1), 93.3% (day 8), 80.0% (day 15), 72.8% (day 22) and 55.9% (day 29).The insecticidal efficacy was 60.0% (day 1), 46.2% (day 8), 42.6% (day 15), 35.2% (day 22) and 29.3% (day 29). The study demonstrated the high repellent potential of the imidacloprid / permethrin combination, thus protecting dogs from sand fly bites.