Anatomy of the shoulder and arm musculature of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo Linnaeus, 1758) and the European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus Linnaeus, 1758)
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Many researchers have recently focused on the functional properties of muscles, and on the mechanics and kinematics of flight, without being able to consult an anatomical database since such a database was either nonexistent or incomplete. In particular, the anatomy of the wing muscles of soaring birds of prey, such as Buteo buteo and Pernis apivorus, has not been examined in detail. The aim of this study was, therefore, to fill this gap in the avian literature and to provide a reference for future comparative and functional studies. Our results show a lesser degree of differentiation of the shoulder musculature as compared to other previously examined birds of prey. However, a few peculiarities were found. In particular, the M. rhomboideus superficialis only has a cranial and a caudal part instead of the typical three parts; the M. pectoralis exhibits a wide and robust fibrous sheet on the deep surface of the Pars sternobrachialis; the cranial head of the Pars propatagialis of the M. deltoideus is especially developed, whereas the tendon of the caudal head divides into two branches. The M. scapulotriceps possesses a humeral anchor and the M. humerotriceps originates from three heads.
KeywordsShoulder muscles Arm muscles Raptors Falconiformes Wing
We are grateful to Adriano de Faveri for his technical assistance during sampling.
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