, Volume 130, Issue 4, pp 255–260

Solenoid: a new aquiferous system to Porifera

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00435-011-0139-7

Cite this article as:
Cavalcanti, F.F. & Klautau, M. Zoomorphology (2011) 130: 255. doi:10.1007/s00435-011-0139-7


The aquiferous system is an essential character of poriferans and supports their monophyly. Within the Calcarea, this system displays its greatest variety and traditionally is classified as: asconoid, syconoid, sylleibid, and leuconoid. Species of Leucascus, however, present a different type of aquiferous system composed of anastomosed (interconnected) choanocyte tubes and have an atrium lacking choanoderm. There is such confusion about the classification of the aquiferous system of Leucascus that, depending on the author, it has been classified as asconoid, syconoid, or leuconoid. Therefore, in the present work, we describe a new type of aquiferous system for Leucascus: the solenoid aquiferous system. This new aquiferous system is defined by the presence of anastomosed tubes internally lined by choanocytes and atrium without choanoderm. Although no deep phylogenetic significance has been attributed to the aquiferous system, the solenoid system raises important evolutionary questions about the variety of systems found among the poriferans.


Anastomosed choanocyte tubes Anastomosis Calcarea Leucascus Poriferans 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de BiologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

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