, Volume 127, Issue 4, pp 203–212

Innervation patterns of the cerebral nerves in Haminoea hydatis (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia): a test for intraspecific variability

  • Sid Staubach
  • Peter Schützner
  • Roger P. Croll
  • Annette Klussmann-Kolb
Original Paper


This study describes the innervation patterns for the cerebral nerves which project to the cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) in the opisthobranch Haminoea hydatis (Linnaeus 1758) and uses axonal tracing techniques (backfilling) to reveal the central cellular origins for these cerebral nerves. Cell clusters projecting into the cerebral nerves can be defined by their positions in the ganglion relative to other clusters, nerve roots and lobes. The number of cell clusters and the relative sizes of somata are constant in a given cluster, whereas the absolute number of somata and absolute sizes of single somata in a given cluster increase with the size of the animal. Additionally, the invariable morphological characteristics of the cell clusters are used to define criteria for the assessment of possible homology for the clusters innervating the CSOs in Opisthobranchia. The data suggest two different strategies to accommodate the increasing body size; first, the additions of nerve cells and second, the growth of nerve cells.


Haminoea hydatis Axonal tracing Cephalic sensory organs Homology Innervation patterns 

Supplementary material

435_2008_64_MOESM1_ESM.xls (28 kb)
Table of the number of specimen, shell size calculated by the product of length and breadth in mm2 and maximum diameter of somata (in μm) within the cerebral clusters projecting into the N2 (27.5 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sid Staubach
    • 1
  • Peter Schützner
    • 2
  • Roger P. Croll
    • 3
  • Annette Klussmann-Kolb
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioscience, Institute for Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Phylogeny and SystematicsJ W Goethe UniversitySiesmayerstraße 70Germany
  2. 2.Biofuture Research Group, Institute of NeurobiologyUniversity of UlmUlmGermany
  3. 3.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

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