, Volume 126, Issue 1, pp 53–59 | Cite as

The sperm structure of Embioptera (Insecta) and phylogenetic considerations

  • Romano Dallai
  • Ryuichiro Machida
  • Yoshie Jintsu
  • Francesco Frati
  • Pietro Lupetti
Original Article


The sperm structure of two species of Embioptera, Embia savignyi Westwood 1837 and Aposthonia japonica (Okajima 1926), was studied. Spermatozoa of both species exhibit a monolayered acrosome and a layer of material surrounding the sperm cells for most of their length. The presence of a 9+9+2 axoneme provided with accessory microtubules with 16 protofilaments, two accessory bodies and two crystallized mitochondrial derivatives are characters shared with other polyneopteran taxa. The supposed close relationship between Embioptera and Phasmatodea is not supported by characters of the sperm ultrastructure.


Ultrastructure Spermatozoa Insect phylogeny Polyneoptera 



We thank David Mercati and Ermanno Malatesta for their technical assistance. This work was supported by a grant to R.D. by the University of Siena (P.A.R.).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Romano Dallai
    • 1
  • Ryuichiro Machida
    • 2
  • Yoshie Jintsu
    • 2
  • Francesco Frati
    • 1
  • Pietro Lupetti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of SienaSienaItaly
  2. 2.Sugadaira Montane Research CenterUniversity of TsukubaUedaJapan

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