, Volume 125, Issue 3, pp 157–173

Reproduction and sperm structure in Galeommatidae (Bivalvia, Galeommatoidea)

Original Article


Reproduction and/or sperm structure was studied in 18 species belonging to five genera of Galeommatidae from Phuket Island, Andaman Sea, Thailand, and Hong Kong. Incubation of the ova occurs in the inner and outer demibranchs of both gills, and sperm is most probably transferred to the ctenidial brood chamber as masses of agglutinated and non-encapsulated spermatozoa. The smallest specimens are males, but change into the female sex and there is a strong indication that some of the species are alternate hermaphrodites. Dwarf males occur in one species (Galeomma layardi). The sperm of all 18 species studied are of the ent-aquasperm type with a more or less hemispherical acrosome that is tilted with respect to the long axis of the moderately elongated nucleus. It is suggested that this type of sperm affords the best autapomorphy for the family Galeommatidae.


Ephippodonta Galeomma Pseudogaleomma Scintilla Scintillona Hermaphroditism Sperm ultrastructure 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cell Biology and Comparative Zoology, Biological InstituteUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagen ØDenmark

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