18F-FDG PET/CT versus CT/MR imaging for detection of neck lymph node metastasis in palpably node-negative oral cavity cancer
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Subclinical lymph node (LN) metastasis is associated with poor survival outcome in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCC), which alleges elective neck LN dissection. Preoperative detection of metastatic LNs may improve prognosis and proper management of OCC. We examined the clinical usefulness of fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for the detection of occult neck LN metastasis in OCC patients in comparison with conventional CT/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
A total of 178 OCC patients with negative neck palpation findings were assessed prospectively with 18F-FDG PET/CT and CT/MR imaging. Histopathological analyses of neck dissection samples served as reference. Diagnostic values of 18F-FDG PET/CT versus CT/MR imaging were compared with the McNemar test and logistic regression with generalized estimating equations.
Forty-two patients (23.6%) had metastasis in 44 sides and 58 levels of the neck. The sensitivity for detection of occult metastasis was higher for 18F-FDG PET/CT than that for CT/MR imaging on a per-patient (69.1% vs 35.7%), per-side (70.5% vs 36.4%), and per-level (62.1% vs 29.3%) basis (all P ≤ 0.001). However, the specificity for metastatic detection was higher for CT/MR imaging than that for 18F-FDG PET/CT (all P < 0.005). 18F-FDG PET/CT improved detection of occult metastasis up to 33.4% in these patients compared to CT/MR imaging.
18F-FDG PET/CT can better detect occult neck metastasis than CT/MR imaging, which may potentially impact the clinical management of OCC patients.
KeywordsOral cavity cancer Occult metastasis Neck lymph node 18F-FDG PET/CT CT/MR imaging
This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant, funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT), the Government of Korea (No. 2019R1A2C2002259) (J.-L.R.).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research board and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. Informed consent from all individual participants was obtained.
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