Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 145, Issue 8, pp 1939–1948 | Cite as

Association of glutathione-S-transferase p1 gene promoter methylation and the incidence of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Xueliang Zhou
  • Dechao Jiao
  • Mengmeng Dou
  • Jianjian Chen
  • Zhaonan Li
  • Yahua Li
  • Juanfang Liu
  • Xinwei HanEmail author
Review – Cancer Research



Some studies have shown that the methylation status of the GSTP1 gene promoter is related to the incidence of prostate cancer, but this finding is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between glutathione-S-transferase p1 (GSTP1) promoter methylation and the incidence of prostate cancer.


The Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched from their inception to February 22, 2019. According to the inclusion criteria, studies of the association between the methylation status of the GSTP1 gene promoter and prostate cancer were included. The difference in the incidence of GSTP1 promoter methylation in tissues, blood, or urine between patients with prostate cancer and those without prostate cancer were compared, and the results were expressed as the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The pooled OR of each study was estimated using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model to generate forest plots.


Ultimately, 15 studies (1540 samples) were included. The estimated effect from our meta-analysis showed that the incidence of GSTP1 promoter methylation was higher in patients with prostate cancer than in those without prostate cancer (OR 18.58, 95% CI 9.60–35.95, P = 0.000). GSTP1 promoter methylation was highly correlated with the incidence of prostate cancer.


Methylation of the GSTP1 promoter may increase the risk of prostate cancer. This study may provide a strategic direction for prostate cancer research. Pending validation of these findings, the methylation of the GSTP1 promoter may be a potential biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer.


Prostate cancer Glutathione-S-transferase p1 Methylation Meta-analysis 



Glutathione-S-transferase P1


Odds ratio


Confidence interval


Prostate-specific antigen


Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses


Newcastle–Ottawa Scale


Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction


Quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction


Benign prostatic hyperplasia



We would like to thank the Chinese Evidence Based Medicine Center at West China Hospital of Sichuan University for providing the Stata 14.0 statistical software.



Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest regarding the present study.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

432_2019_2962_MOESM1_ESM.doc (42 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 42 kb)
432_2019_2962_MOESM2_ESM.doc (39 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 39 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Interventional RadiologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina

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