Progress in gene therapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus as vectors
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Vaccinia virus was widely used in the World Health Organization’s smallpox eradication campaign and is currently a promising vector for gene therapy owing to its unique characteristics. Vaccinia virus can selectively replicate and propagate productively in tumor cells, resulting in oncolysis. In addition, rapid viral particle production, wide host range, large genome size (approximately 200 kb), and safe handling render vaccinia virus a suitable vector for gene therapy.
Materials and methods
Cancer vaccines and gene therapy are being studied in clinical trials and experiment researches. However, we put forward unique challenges of optimal selection of foreign genes, administration and modification of VACV, personalized medicine, and other existing problems, based on current researches and our own experiments.
This review presents an overview of the vaccinia virus from its mechanisms to medical researches and clinical trials. We believe that the solution to these problems will contribute to understanding mechanisms of VACV and provide a theoretical basis for clinical treatment.
KeywordsOncolytic viruses Vaccinia virus Cancer vaccines Gene therapy Oncolytic vector
Vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain
Thymidine tyrosine kinase
Granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor
Modified vaccinia Ankara
Short interfering double-stranded RNA
Short hairpin RNA
We thanked Jie Liu for the literature search.
XY and BH did the data analysis and interpretation, and manuscript writing; LD did collection and assembly of data; ZH did the conception/design, provision of study material or patients, and final approval of manuscript.
This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81703061).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
This manuscript does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
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