Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 143, Issue 1, pp 131–142 | Cite as

Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical outcomes and prognostic factors

  • Sicong Ma
  • Min Ding
  • Jiang Li
  • Tao Wang
  • Xingxing Qi
  • Yaoping Shi
  • Yanan Ming
  • Jiachang Chi
  • Zhi Wang
  • Xiaoyin Tang
  • Dan Cui
  • Yuan Zhang
  • Bo Zhai
Original Article – Clinical Oncology



The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (US-guided PMWA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the analysis of prognostic factors.

Materials and methods

The treatment and survival parameters of 433 patients with HCC (≤10 cm), who met the inclusion criteria and had received US-guided PMWA in Renji Hospital from July 2010 to November 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. Imaging examination (contrast-enhanced CT or MR) and tumor markers (AFP and CA199) 1 month after MWA were used to evaluate the efficacy of US-guided PMWA. SPSS software was used to perform all statistical analyses.


The initial complete ablation (CA) rate was 94.9 % (411/433). Twenty-two patients with incomplete ablation received repeat PMWA, and the total CA rate was up to 98.6 % (427/433). Multiple tumor number, tumor >5 cm in diameter, and higher serum AFP level (>20 ng/ml) were significant unfavorable prognosticators of progression-free survival (PFS). The cumulative 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 83.5, 66.1, and 58.7 %, respectively (median: 43 months). Tumor >5 cm in diameter and serum AFP >400 ng/ml were significant unfavorable prognosticators of OS.


PMWA is well tolerated in HCC patients and capable of offering high CA rate. Tumor number, tumor size, and AFP level were significant prognosticators of patients’ PFS, whereas tumor size and AFP level were significant prognosticators of OS.


Hepatocellular carcinoma Ablation US-guided PMWA Clinical outcome Prognostic factors 



Hepatocellular carcinoma

US-guided PMWA

Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation


Hepatitis B virus


Complete ablation


Progression-free survival


Overall survival


Radiofrequency ablation


Microwave ablation


Percutaneous ethanol injection


Transarterial chemoembolization


Local tumor progression


Intrahepatic distant recurrence


Extrahepatic metastases



SiCong Ma collected the data of the patients, designed the pipeline of the analysis, and drafted the manuscript. Min Ding designed the pipeline of the analysis, performed the statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript. Jiang Li designed the pipeline of the analysis and drafted the manuscript. Bo Zhai conceived and coordinated the overall study and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This research was supported by a grant from The National Natural Science Fund (No. 81472845).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

432_2016_2266_MOESM1_ESM.docx (42 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 41 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sicong Ma
    • 1
  • Min Ding
    • 1
  • Jiang Li
    • 2
  • Tao Wang
    • 1
  • Xingxing Qi
    • 1
  • Yaoping Shi
    • 1
  • Yanan Ming
    • 3
  • Jiachang Chi
    • 1
  • Zhi Wang
    • 1
  • Xiaoyin Tang
    • 1
  • Dan Cui
    • 1
  • Yuan Zhang
    • 1
  • Bo Zhai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Interventional Oncology, Renji Hospital, School of MedicineShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Viral and Gene Therapy, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery HospitalThe Second Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Renji Hospital, School of MedicineShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

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