Current status in cancer cell reprogramming and its clinical implications
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The technology of reprogramming a terminally differentiated cell to an embryonic-like state uncovered the possibility of reprogramming a malignant cell back to a more manageable stem cell-like state. Since the current cancer models suffer from reflecting heterogeneous tumour structure and limited to express the late-stage markers, the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could provide an alternative model to recapitulate the early stages of cancer. Generation of iPSCs from cancer cells could offer a tool for understanding the mechanisms of tumour initiation–progression in vitro, a platform for studying tumour heterogeneity and origin of cancer stem cells and a source for cancer type-specific drug discovery studies.
In this review, we discussed the recent findings in reprogramming cancer cells with a special emphasis on similarities between cancer cells and pluripotent cells. We presented the basis of challenges in cancer cell reprogramming including the current problems in reprogramming, cancer-specific epigenetic state and chromosomal aberrations.
Cancer epigenetics represent the major hurdle before the prospective use of cancer iPSCs as a model system and for biomarker research. When the reprogramming process is optimised for cancer cell types, it might serve for two purposes: identification of the specific epigenetic state of cancer as well as reversion of the malignant phenotype to a potentially malignant but manageable state.
Reprogramming cancer cells would serve for our understanding of cancer-specific epigenome and elucidation of overlapping mechanisms shared by cancer-initiating cells and pluripotent cells.
KeywordsReprogramming Cancer Induced pluripotent stem cells Pluripotency Epigenetics
This study was supported by the grant from The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (No: 114S452 and 113S927).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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