The role of stress and beta-adrenergic system in melanoma: current knowledge and possible therapeutic options
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The aim of the present review was to discuss recent findings on the role of beta-adrenergic system in melanoma, in order to provide information on the biological responses elicited by its activation and its potential application for melanoma treatment.
A literature search was performed, and evidences regarding the involvement of stress and beta-adrenergic system in cancer and melanoma were found and discussed.
Our search pointed out that beta-adrenergic system is a key regulator of important biological processes involved in the onset and progression of some solid tumors. In the last decade, functional beta-adrenoceptors have been also identified on melanoma cells, as well as on their microenvironment cells. Similarly to other common cancers too, the activation of such adrenoceptors by catecholamines, usually released under stress conditions, has been found to trigger pro-tumorigenic pathways contributing to cell proliferation and motility, immune system regulation, apoptosis, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, invasion and neoangiogenesis.
The biological evidences we found clarify and sustain the clinical evidences reporting the involvement of chronic stress in melanoma onset and progression. In such scenario, it is conceivable that a therapeutic approach targeting beta-adrenergic system could constitute a novel and promising strategy for melanoma treatment.
KeywordsMelanoma Beta-adrenergic system Beta-adrenergic receptors Catecholamines Stress Beta-blockers
This manuscript did not receive any specific grant; thus, it was not funded.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Dr. Roberta Colucci declares that she has no conflict of interest. Prof. Silvia Moretti declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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