Radiation-induced fibrosis: mechanisms and implications for therapy
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Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a long-term side effect of external beam radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. It results in a multitude of symptoms that significantly impact quality of life. Understanding the mechanisms of RIF-induced changes is essential to developing effective strategies to prevent long-term disability and discomfort following radiation therapy. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the etiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, treatment, and directions of future therapy for this condition.
A literature review of publications describing mechanisms or treatments of RIF was performed. Specific databases utilized included PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov, using keywords “Radiation-Induced Fibrosis,” “Radiotherapy Complications,” “Fibrosis Therapy,” and other closely related terms.
RIF is the result of a misguided wound healing response. In addition to causing direct DNA damage, ionizing radiation generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that lead to localized inflammation. This inflammatory process ultimately evolves into a fibrotic one characterized by increased collagen deposition, poor vascularity, and scarring. Tumor growth factor beta serves as the primary mediator in this response along with a host of other cytokines and growth factors. Current therapies have largely been directed toward these molecular targets and their associated signaling pathways.
Although RIF is widely prevalent among patients undergoing radiation therapy and significantly impacts quality of life, there is still much to learn about its pathogenesis and mechanisms. Current treatments have stemmed from this understanding, and it is anticipated that further elucidation will be essential for the development of more effective therapies.
KeywordsCancer Radiation Fibrosis Fibroblast Inflammation TGF-β Therapy
The Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the University of Kansas Medical Center, the University of Kansas Cancer Center’s CCSG (1-P30-CA168524-02), and the Kansas Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Center (NICHD HD00258) were the funding sources. The authors acknowledge Mr. Phil Shafer for generating the schematic diagram. We apologize to authors whose work was not cited due to space constraints.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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