Cervical cancer stem cells: opportunities and challenges
Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in spite of screening and vaccination programs. The current treatment strategies including chemotherapy and surgery could only prolong the patient’s survival rather than provide a permanent cure. In case of advanced cervical cancer, radical surgery remains the only option which not only affects the child-bearing ability of the patient, but also comes with a continual risk of recurrence of the disease. Hence, there is a need to develop innovative therapeutics. The cancer stem cell hypothesis states that a tumor has a hierarchical cellular structure in which only a small subpopulation, referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs), is capable of tumorigenesis. The CSCs possess the stem-like properties of self-renewal and can differentiate into non-stem tumor cells.
A large number of studies suggest that CSCs are resistant to the conventional therapies used for cancer treatment. These therapies rather enrich the proportion of CSCs in the tumor by eliminating non-stem tumor cells, thereby causing enhanced drug resistance resulting in relapse of the disease. This makes CSCs as the most likely targets for therapeutic intervention. Also, the increase in the proportion of CSCs in patient samples is associated with poor survival rate, thus highlighting their potential role as prognostic biomarker.
The CSCs have been identified and characterized in cervical cancer cell lines, but there are hardly any reports of CSCs in cervical cancer patient samples. This review highlights the current status of research on cervical CSCs, their clinical significance and the challenges in the field.
KeywordsCSC Cancer therapeutics SOX2 CD49f
This work was supported by the INSPIRE Faculty fellowship awarded to RC (Code- IFA12-LSBM-18) by Department of Science and Technology, India. The funding agency had no role in the writing of the manuscript and in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest.
- Castellsagué X, Muñoz N (2003) Chapter 3: Cofactors in human papillomavirus carcinogenesis–role of parity, oral contraceptives, and tobacco smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 20–28Google Scholar
- Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M PD, Forman D, Bray F (2013) GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase. No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, Fr Int Agency Res Cancer 11. http://globocan.iarc.f
- Higgins C (2012) Understanding laboratory investigations: A guide for nurses, midwives and health professionals, 3rd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN: 978-0-470-65951-9Google Scholar
- Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM et al (1999) Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol 189:12–19. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(199909)189:1<12:AID-PATH431>3.0.CO;2-F CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar