Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 140, Issue 9, pp 1465–1477 | Cite as

Positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk: new findings from an updated meta-analysis

  • Yonghua Xu
  • Xiaoping Shao
  • Yacheng Yao
  • Lijian Xu
  • Liang Chang
  • Zhuojuan Jiang
  • Zhaofen LinEmail author
Original Article – Cancer Research



To investigate and clarify the relationship between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and prostate cancer risk.


We conducted the meta-analysis to better evaluate the association. Terms “25-Hydroxyvitamin D”/“vitamin D” and “prostate cancer” were used for literature search.


We identified 21 relevant publications from databases of PubMed and MEDLINE and included 11,941 cases and 13,870 controls in the meta-analysis. Overall studies revealed a significant 17 % elevated risk of prostate cancer for individuals with higher level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (OR = 1.17, 95 % CI = 1.05–1.30, P  = 0.004), and no publication bias was found in the calculations (P  = 0.629). Subgroup analysis confirmed the association from nested case–control study group, studies from USA group and studies using serum samples group (nested case–control studies: OR = 1.17, 95 % CI = 1.08–1.27, P < 0.001; USA: OR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 1.03–1.29, P = 0.017; serum: OR = 1.20, 95 % CI = 1.01–1.42, P = 0.042); moreover, sensitivity tests also indicated significant results in studies from Europe and studies conducting with plasma samples after exclusion of some influential single study from the analysis, respectively (Europe: OR = 1.21, 95 % CI = 1.04–1.40, P = 0.014; plasma: OR = 1.13, 95 % CI = 1.00–1.27, P = 0.05).


Our meta-analysis, for the first time, suggested significant positive relationship between high level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and increased risk of prostate cancer, reminding us that more concern should be taken into account during assessing the effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.


25-Hydroxyvitamin D Prostate cancer risk Meta-analysis 



Relative risk


Odds ratio

95 % CI

95 % Confidential interval


Conflict of interest

The authors confirm that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yonghua Xu
    • 1
  • Xiaoping Shao
    • 1
  • Yacheng Yao
    • 2
  • Lijian Xu
    • 3
  • Liang Chang
    • 1
  • Zhuojuan Jiang
    • 1
  • Zhaofen Lin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Emergency, Shanghai Changzheng HospitalSecond Military Medical UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Urology, Shanghai Changzheng HospitalSecond Military Medical UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Intensive Care UnitShanghai Yangsi HospitalShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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