Challenging the effectiveness of green tea in primary and tertiary cancer prevention
Drinking green tea daily is part of Japanese culture, and various studies have revealed that green tea is a cancer preventive. We here review our progress in cancer prevention with green tea on 12 main topics, from basic to clinical level.
Topics and methods
Biochemical and biological studies of green tea catechins, a prospective cohort study, preclinical safety trials with tablets of green tea extract, double-blind randomized clinical phase II prevention trial for recurrence of colorectal adenomas, and synergistically enhanced inhibition by the combination of green tea catechins and anticancer drugs. All results were significant, including human studies with informed consent.
Drinking 10 Japanese-size cups of green tea per day delayed the cancer onset of humans 7 years for females. For tertiary cancer prevention, consuming 10 cups of green tea per day fortified by green tea tablets, 50 %, significantly prevented the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. A minimum effective amount of green tea catechins for cancer prevention was found in humans. In addition, the combination of green tea catechins and anticancer drugs engendered a new cancer therapeutic strategy.
The consumption of 10 Japanese-size cups of green tea per day is a significant factor in primary cancer prevention for the general population, and the preventive effect on recurrence of colorectal adenomas in patients is vital evidence in tertiary cancer prevention.
KeywordsApoptosis Delayed cancer onset GADD153 Green tea tablet Phase II prevention trial Prospective cohort study TNF-α
- Adachi S, Nagao T, Ingolfsson HI, Maxfield FR, Andersen OS, Kopelovich L, Weinstein IB (2007) The inhibitory effect of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate on activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor is associated with altered lipid order in HT29 colon cancer cells. Cancer Res 67:6493–6501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, Castagnetti G, Peracchia G, Corti A (2006) Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Res 66:1234–1240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Conney AH, Wang ZY, Huang MT, Ho CT, Yang CS (1992) Inhibitory effect of oral administration of green tea on tumorigenesis by ultraviolet light, 12-O-tetra decanoylphorbol-13-acetate and N-nitrosodiethylamine in mice. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 361–373Google Scholar
- El-Deiry WS, Harper JW, O’Connor PM, Velculescu VE, Canman CE, Jackman J, Pietenpol JA, Burrell M, Hill DE, Wang Y, Wiman KG, Mercer WE, Kastan MB, Kohn KW, Elledge SJ, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B (1994) WAF1/CIP1 is induced in p53-mediated G1 arrest and apoptosis. Cancer Res 54:1169–1174PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fisher B, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Redmond CK, Kavanah M, Cronin WM, Vogel V, Robidoux A, Dimitrov N, Atkins J, Daly M, Wieand S, Tan-Chiu E, Ford L, Wolmark N, other National Surgical Adjivant Breast and Bowel Project Inverstigators (1998) Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer. Report of the national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project P-1 study. J Natl Cancer Inst 90:1371–1388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fujiki H, Okuda T (1992) (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate. Drugs Future 17:462–464Google Scholar
- Hecker E, Adolf W, Hergenhahn R, Schmidt R, Sorg B (1984) Irritant diterpene ester promoters of mouse skin: contributions to etiologies of environmental cancer and to biochemical mechanisms of carcinogenesis. In: Fujiki H, Hecker E, Moore RE, Sugimura T, Weinstein IB (eds) Cellular interactions by environmental tumor promoters. Jpn Sci Soc Press/VNU Science Press, BV, Tokyo/Utrecht, pp 3–36Google Scholar
- Iwasaki M, Inoue M, Sasazuki S, Sawada N, Yamaji T, Shimazu T, Willett WC, Tsugane S (2010) Green tea drinking and subsequent risk of breast cancer in a population to based cohort of Japanese women. Breast Cancer Res 12:R88. (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
- NCI, Dcpc, Chemoprevention Branch and Agent Development Committee (1996) Clinical development plan:tea extracts green tea polyphenols epigallocatechin gallate. J Cell Biochem 26S:236–257Google Scholar
- Stingl JC, Ettrich T, Muche R, Wiedom M, Brockmöller J, Seeringer A, Seufferlein T (2011) Protocol for minimizing the risk of metachronous adenomas of the colorectum with green tea extract (MIRACLE): a randomized controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population. BMC Cancer 11:360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsao AS, Liu D, Martin J, Tang X-m, Lee JJ, El-Naggar AK, Wistuba I, Culotta KS, Mao L, Gillenwater A, Sagesaka YM, Hong WK, Papadimitrakopoulou V (2009) Phase II randomized, placebo-controlled trial of green tea extract in patients with high-risk oral premalignant lesions. Cancer Rev Res 2:931–941Google Scholar
- Yoshizawa S, Horiuchi T, Suganuma M, Nishiwaki S, Yatsunami J, Okabe S, Okuda T, Muto Y, Frenkel K, Troll W, Fujiki H (1992) Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. Am Chem Soc:316–325Google Scholar