PTEN mutation spectrum in breast cancers and breast hyperplasia
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Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is one of the most frequently mutated human tumor suppressor genes. The present study aims to investigate the role of PTEN mutation in breast carcinogenesis by analyzing PTEN mutation spectrum and the protein expression in breast cancers, adjacent hyperplastic lesions, benign breast lesions and normal breast tissues.
All 9 exons of PTEN gene were amplified by PCR with DNA extracted from 50 of human breast cancers and corresponding adjacent breast hyperplasia tissues, adjacent normal breast tissues, as well as 50 breast benign lesions residing in or around Yunnan, China, respectively. PCR products were then sequenced for mutation screening. And we also proved the effect of mutations on the expression of PTEN protein by immunohistochemistry.
PTEN mutations were detected in 11 of 50 (22%) breast cancers and 4 of 50 (8%) adjacent ductal hyperplasia, all of which were atypical ductal hyperplasia and same PTEN mutation were detected in the corresponding cancer tissues. No PTEN mutation was detected in all adjacent normal breast tissues and 50 cases of breast benign lesions. The mutation sites concentrated at exon 3, 4, 5 and 7; no mutation was detected in exon 1, 2, 6, 8, or 9 and splicing sites of all introns. The hottest mutation spots were exon 5 with missense mutations. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that 24 of 50 (48%) breast cancers and 6 of 50 (12%) adjacent breast hyperplasia demonstrated negative immuno-staining of PTEN (loss of PTEN protein expression). All the 4 adjacent breast tissues harbored PTEN mutations and 9 of 11 breast cancers with PTEN mutation were loss of PTEN expression. Statistical analysis revealed that PTEN gene mutations were correlated with the PTEN expression.
The incidence of PTEN mutations is relatively high in patients with sporadic breast cancer in the region of Yunnan, China and exists at the early stage of breast cancer development. The PTEN mutations have significant effect on the expression silencing of PTEN protein indicating the important role of PTEN mutation in carcinogenesis of breast cancers.
KeywordsPTEN Tumor suppressor gene Mutation Breast cancer Mammary hyperplasia
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