Clinical study of recombinant adenovirus-p53 combined with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma
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The purpose of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and treatment outcomes of recombinant adenovirus-p53 (rAd-p53, trademarked as Gendicine) combined with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (fSRT) in treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
We randomly enrolled 40 patients with HCC treated by fSRT alone (fSRT group) or rAd-p53 combined with fSRT (combined group). Tumor size was 2–5.2 cm (average 3.2 cm). We prescribed 50 Gy in 10 fractions at the 50%–80% isodose line of the planning target volume for 2 weeks in two groups. The combined group was treated with two intratumoral injections of rAd-p53 on day 1 and 8 while fSRT started on day 3. Tumor response was assessed after treatment using modified WHO criteria. The follow-up period was 11–44 months (median 35 months).
The overall response rate of fSRT group was 70%, with 4 patients showing complete response (20%), 10 partial response (50%) and 6 stable disease (30%). Correspondingly the overall response rate of combined group was 85%, with 7 patients showing complete response (35%), 10 partial response (50%) and 3 stable disease (15%). The 1-year survival rates of fSRT group and combined group were 70.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The 1-year disease-free survival rates of fSRT group and combined group were 65% and 85%, respectively. These treatments were well tolerated, because grade 3 or 4 toxicity was not observed.
These results suggest that rAd-p53 combined with fSRT is a relatively safe and effective method for treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma compared with only fSRT. Thus, rAd-p53 combined with fractionated SRT may be preferred as a choice of local treatment for primary HCC when the patients are inoperable or when the patients refuse operation.