Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 135, Issue 10, pp 1359–1367 | Cite as

High expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor predict poor prognosis in alpha-fetoprotein-negative hepatocellular carcinoma patients after curative resection

  • Jie Hu
  • Yang Xu
  • Zao-Zhuo Shen
  • Zheng Wang
  • Qing Lu
  • Guo-Huan Yang
  • Zheng-Bin Ding
  • Jia Fan
  • Jian Zhou
Original Paper



To evaluate the prognosis value of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after curative resection.


Tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs) were used to detect the expressions of VEGF and PD-ECGF in consecutive 162 AFP-negative HCC patients undergoing curative resection between 1997 and 2000 in our institute. Clinicopathologic data for these patients were evaluated. The prognostic significance was assessed using Kaplan–Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests. Multivariate study with Cox’s proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the prognosis-related aspects.


The positive rates of VEGF and PD-ECGF in tumor tissues were 59.9% (97/162) and 62.3% (101/162), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that VEGF and PD-ECGF were prognostic factors for relapse-free survival (P = 0.034 and P = 0.033, respectively). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the co-index (VEGF/PD-ECGF) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and relapse-free survival (P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively).


The co-index of VEGF and PD-ECGF is a promising independent predictor for recurrence and survival of AFP-negative HCC patients after curative resection.


Hepatocellular carcinoma Vascular endothelial growth factor Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor Prognosis Tissue microarrays 



Hepatocellular carcinoma




Hepatitis B virus


Hepatitis C virus antibody


Vascular endothelial growth factor


Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor


Tissue microarrays


Tumor-node metastasis


Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization


Overall survival


Relapse-free survival



This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30873039), Shanghai Science and Technology Development Funds (No. 07JC14010, 06QA14012, 07SP07003) and National Hi-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No.2007AA02Z479).

Conflict of interest statement

This is an original work by all the authors and no previous presentations, reports or publications contain any material that appears in the article. We certify that no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this article exists.

Supplementary material

432_2009_577_MOESM1_ESM.doc (38 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 38 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jie Hu
    • 1
  • Yang Xu
    • 1
  • Zao-Zhuo Shen
    • 1
  • Zheng Wang
    • 1
  • Qing Lu
    • 1
  • Guo-Huan Yang
    • 1
  • Zheng-Bin Ding
    • 1
  • Jia Fan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jian Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis & Cancer Invasion, The Chinese Ministry of Education, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhong Shan Hospital and Shanghai Medical SchoolFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Biomedical SciencesFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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