A phase I/II trial of a polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in breast cancer patients: immunological effects
Cancer patients commonly use dietary supplements to “boost immune function”. A polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake extract) showed immunomodulatory effects in preclinical studies and therefore the potential for clinical use. Whether oral administration in human produces measurable immunologic effects, however, is unknown.
In a phase I/II dose escalation trial, 34 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, free of disease after initial treatment, were enrolled sequentially in five cohorts. Maitake liquid extract was taken orally at 0.1, 0.5, 1.5, 3, or 5 mg/kg twice daily for 3 weeks. Peripheral blood was collected at days −7, 0 (prior to the first dosing), 7, 14, and 21 for ex vivo analyses. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability.
No dose-limiting toxicity was encountered. Two patients withdrew prior to completion of the study due to grade I possibly related side effects: nausea and joint swelling in one patient; rash and pruritus in the second. There was a statistically significant association between Maitake and immunologic function (p < 0.0005). Increasing doses of Maitake increased some immunologic parameters and depressed others; the dose–response curves for many endpoints were non-monotonic with intermediate doses having either immune enhancing or immune suppressant effects compared with both high and low doses.
Oral administration of a polysaccharide extract from Maitake mushroom is associated with both immunologically stimulatory and inhibitory measurable effects in peripheral blood. Cancer patients should be made aware of the fact that botanical agents produce more complex effects than assumed, and may depress as well as enhance immune function.
KeywordsClinical trial Breast cancer Immunology Maitake Mushroom Botanical Herbal Dietary supplement Optimal dose Complementary and alternative medicine
We would like to thank Tina Chuck, Kristine Brown and Carrie Trevisan (Research Study Assistants) for their work in this study. The study was supported by the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Translational Research Grant and Grant Number P50 AT002779 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS).
- Nanba H, Hamaguchi A, Kuroda H (1987) The chemical structure of an antitumor polysaccharide in fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa (maitake). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 35(3):1162–1168Google Scholar
- Penna C, Dean PA, Nelson H (1996) Pulmonary metastases neutralization and tumor rejection by in vivo administration of beta glucan and bispecific antibody. Int J Cancer 65(3):377–382. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19960126)65:3<377::AID-IJC17>3.0.CO;2-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki I, Hashimoto K, Oikawa S, Sato K, Osawa M, Yadomae T (1989) Antitumor and immunomodulating activities of a beta-glucan obtained from liquid-cultured Grifola frondosa. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 37(2):410–413Google Scholar