Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 135, Issue 9, pp 1177–1184 | Cite as

Human cervical carcinoma xenograft models for studies of the physiological microenvironment of tumors

  • Christine Ellingsen
  • Ingrid Natvig
  • Jon-Vidar Gaustad
  • Kristine Gulliksrud
  • Tormod A. M. Egeland
  • Einar K. RofstadEmail author
Original Paper



To establish and characterize experimental tumor models of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.


Permanent cell lines (CK-160 and TS-415) were established from pelvic lymph node metastases of two cervical carcinoma patients. Xenografted tumors were initiated by inoculating 5 × 105 cells into the gastrocnemius muscle of BALB/c nu/nu mice. The tumors were characterized with respect to histological appearance, fraction of necrotic tissue (NF), pimonidazole hypoxic fraction (HFPim), interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), extracellular pH (pHe), metastatic propensity, and radiation sensitivity.


The xenografted tumors reflected the donor patients’ tumors in histological appearance, metastatic propensity, and radiation sensitivity and showed significant intertumor heterogeneity in growth rate, NF, HFPim, IFP, and pHe.


CK-160 and TS-415 xenografts possess properties making them relevant models for studies of the physiological microenvironment of cervical carcinoma and its influence on metastatic dissemination and response to treatment.


Cervical carcinoma Metastasis Radiosensitivity Hypoxia Extracellular pH Interstitial fluid pressure 



This work was supported by the Norwegian Cancer Society.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Ellingsen
    • 1
  • Ingrid Natvig
    • 1
  • Jon-Vidar Gaustad
    • 1
  • Kristine Gulliksrud
    • 1
  • Tormod A. M. Egeland
    • 1
  • Einar K. Rofstad
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Group of Radiation Biology and Tumor Physiology, Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer ResearchNorwegian Radium HospitalOsloNorway

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