Galectin-3 in urine of cancer patients: stage and tissue specificity

  • Kiruthika Balasubramanian
  • Raghavendra Vasudevamurthy
  • Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah
  • Anil Thomas
  • A. Vishweshwara
  • Shylaja Mallaiah Dharmesh
Original Paper



Galectin-3 has been implicated in advanced stage of cancer disease. In the current study we examined the possibility of urinary galectin-3 levels to stage cancer disease and to follow up therapy.

Experimental design

Urine was collected from all types of cancer patients at different stages including patients undergoing radio/chemotherapy. Galectin-3 level was determined by anti-galectin-3 based ELISA and agglutination assays. Immunoblotting and purification on lactosyl affinity column further confirmed the presence of galectin-3.


Cancer samples exhibited stage dependent expression of galectin-3 approx. ranging from 1.0 to 3.3, 4.4 to 5.4, 5.4 to 24.7, 13.1 to 31.9, 13.9 to 32.9 ng/mg C (creatinine) for stage I–V, respectively, at P ~ <0.05 level. Galectin-3 levels were decreased by approx. threefolds after 5th day of therapy.


Sample collection being simple and non-invasive, urinary galectin-3 may be used as a potential diagnostic tool for monitoring or follow up of the stage of cancer disease.


Galectin-3 Hemagglutination Creatinine Metastasis Radio/chemotherapy Urine 



Authors thank Dr. V. Prakash, Director, CFTRI, for his keen interest in the work and encouragement. Authors are also thankful to Dr. S. G. Bhat, former Head, Dr. P. V. Salimath, current Head, Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition. SMD thank Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi, India and Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India for financial assistance. SMD and SUV acknowledges the financial assistance from Indian Council of Medical Research as Senior Research Fellowship to SUV.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiruthika Balasubramanian
    • 1
  • Raghavendra Vasudevamurthy
    • 1
  • Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah
    • 1
  • Anil Thomas
    • 2
  • A. Vishweshwara
    • 2
  • Shylaja Mallaiah Dharmesh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and NutritionCentral Food Technological Research InstituteMysoreIndia
  2. 2.Bharath Institute of Oncology and ResearchMysoreIndia

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