Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 135, Issue 3, pp 355–363

Galectin-3 in urine of cancer patients: stage and tissue specificity

  • Kiruthika Balasubramanian
  • Raghavendra Vasudevamurthy
  • Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah
  • Anil Thomas
  • A. Vishweshwara
  • Shylaja Mallaiah Dharmesh
Original Paper



Galectin-3 has been implicated in advanced stage of cancer disease. In the current study we examined the possibility of urinary galectin-3 levels to stage cancer disease and to follow up therapy.

Experimental design

Urine was collected from all types of cancer patients at different stages including patients undergoing radio/chemotherapy. Galectin-3 level was determined by anti-galectin-3 based ELISA and agglutination assays. Immunoblotting and purification on lactosyl affinity column further confirmed the presence of galectin-3.


Cancer samples exhibited stage dependent expression of galectin-3 approx. ranging from 1.0 to 3.3, 4.4 to 5.4, 5.4 to 24.7, 13.1 to 31.9, 13.9 to 32.9 ng/mg C (creatinine) for stage I–V, respectively, at P ~ <0.05 level. Galectin-3 levels were decreased by approx. threefolds after 5th day of therapy.


Sample collection being simple and non-invasive, urinary galectin-3 may be used as a potential diagnostic tool for monitoring or follow up of the stage of cancer disease.


Galectin-3 Hemagglutination Creatinine Metastasis Radio/chemotherapy Urine 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiruthika Balasubramanian
    • 1
  • Raghavendra Vasudevamurthy
    • 1
  • Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah
    • 1
  • Anil Thomas
    • 2
  • A. Vishweshwara
    • 2
  • Shylaja Mallaiah Dharmesh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and NutritionCentral Food Technological Research InstituteMysoreIndia
  2. 2.Bharath Institute of Oncology and ResearchMysoreIndia

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