Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 131, Issue 4, pp 238–242

Human glutathione S-transferase A1, T1, M1, and P1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to prostate cancer in the Japanese population

  • Yasuhiro Komiya
  • Hiromasa Tsukino
  • Hiroyuki Nakao
  • Yoshiki Kuroda
  • Hirohisa Imai
  • Takahiko Katoh
Original Paper
  • 124 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose: The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing in low-risk populations such as Japanese. One of the causes of this increase is considered to be associated with the Western diet, especially the high intake of red meat and fat. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1, T1, M1, and P1 are phase II enzymes that are important for activation and detoxification of chemical carcinogens.

Methods: In this study, 190 Japanese male patients with prostate cancer and 294 healthy controls, frequency-matched for age, were compared for frequencies of GSTA1, GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 genotypes.

Results: Among smokers, the frequency of the GSTA1*A/*B or *B/*B genotype in patients with prostate cancer (27.8%) showed a statistically significant increase compared with the control group frequency (18.2%; odds ratio [OR] =1.72; 95% CI, 1.01–2.94). In addition, the frequency of GSTT1 nondeletion genotype was associated with prostate cancer among smokers (OR =1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.68). The OR of carrying the combined genotyping of GSTA1*A/*B or *B/*B and GSTT1 nondeletion was 2.08 (95% CI, 1.14–3.80) with the combined genotyping of GSTA1*A/*A and GSTT1 null as a reference. On the other hand, no significant associations were observed for genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTP1 I105V.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the GSTA1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms are associated with prostate cancer susceptibility, especially among smokers.

Keywords

GSTA1 GSTT1 Polymorphism Prostate cancer 

References

  1. Ali-Osman F, Akanda O, Antoun G, Maso JX, Buolamwini J (1997) Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression in Escherichia coli of full-length cDNA of three human glutathione S-transferase Pi gene variants. J Biol Chem 272:10004–10021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Coles BF, Morel F, Rauch C, Huber WW, Yang M, Teitel CH, Green B, Lang NP, Kadlubar FF (2001) Effect of polymorphism in the human glutathione S-transferase A1 promotor on hepatic GSTA1 and GSTA2 expression. Pharmacogenetics 11:663–669Google Scholar
  3. Gronberg H (2003) Prostate cancer epidemiology. Lancet 361:859–864CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Guengerich FP, Thier R, Persmark M, Taylor JB, Pemple SE, Ketterer B (1995) Conjugation of carcinogens by theta class glutathione S-transferase: mechanisms and relevance to variations in human risk. Pharmacogenetics 5:S103–S107Google Scholar
  5. Hallier E, Schroeder KR, Asmuth K, Donnermuth A, Aust B, Goergens HW (1994) Metabolism of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) to formaldehyde in human erythrocytes: influences of polymorphism of glutathione transferase theta (GSTT1-1). Arch Toxicol 68:423–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hayes RB, Ziegler RG, Gridley G (1999) Dietary factors and risks for prostate cancer among blacks and whites in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8:25–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hickey K, Do K-A, Green A (2001) Smoking and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 23:115–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Jeronimo C, Varzim G, Henrique R, Oliveira J, Bento MJ, Silva C, Lopes C, Sidransky D (2002) I105 V polymorphism and promotor methylation of the GSTP1 gene in prostate adenocarcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:445–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Katoh T, Nagata N, Kuroda Y, Itoh H, Kawahara A, Kuroki N, Ookuma R, Bell DA (1996) Glutathione S-transferaseM1(GSTM1) and T1(GSTT1) genetic polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Carcinogenesis 17:1855–1859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kelada SR, Kardia SLR, Walker AH, Wein AJ, Malkowicz SB, Rebbeck TR (2000) The glutathione S-transferase-μ and -θ genotypes in the etiology of prostate cancer: genotype-environment interactions with smoking. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:1329–1334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ketterer B, Harris JM, Talaska G, Meyer DJ, Pemble SE, Taylor JB, Lang NP, Kadlubar FF (1992) The human glutathione S-transferase supergene family, its polymorphism, and its effects on susceptibility to lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 98:87–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lin D, Meyer DJ, Ketterer B, Lang NP, Kadlubar FF (1994) Effect of human and rat glutathione S-transferase on the covalent DNA binding of the N-acetoxy derivatives of heterocyclic amine carcinogens in vitro: a possible mechanism of organ specificity in their carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 54:4920–4926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Morel F, Rauch C, Coles B, Ferrec EL, Guillouzo A (2002) The human glutathione transferase alpha locus: genomic organization of the gene cluster and functional characterization of the genetic polymorphism in the hGSTA1 promotor. Pharmacogenetics 12:277–286Google Scholar
  14. Murata M, Wtanabe M, Yamanaka M, Kubota Y, Itoh H, Nagao M, Katoh T, Kamataki T, Kawanura J, Yatani R, Shiraishi T (2001) Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and GSTT1 and susceptibility to prostate cancer in the Japanese population. Cancer Lett 165:171–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Nelson CP, Kidd CR, Sauvageot J, Isaacs WB, De Marzo AM, Groopman JD, Nelson WG, Kensler TW (2001) Protection against 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine cytotoxicity and DNA adduct formation in human prostate by glutathione S-transferase P1. Cancer Res 61:103–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Pemple S, Schroeder KR, Spencer SR, Meyer DJ, Hallier E, Blot HM, Kettler B, Taylor JB (1994) Human glutathione S-transferase cθ (GSTT1): cDNA cloning and the characterization of a genetic polymorphism. Biochem J 300:271–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Rebbeck TR, Walker AH, Jaffe JM, White DL, Wein AJ, Malkowicz SB (1999) Glutathione S-transferase-μ (GSTM1) and -θ (GSTT1) genotypes in the etiology of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8:283–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, pp 9.1–9.62Google Scholar
  19. Seidegard J, Vorachek WR, Pero RW (1998) Hereditary differences in the expression of the human glutathione transferase active on trans-stilbene oxide are due to gene deletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:7293–7297Google Scholar
  20. Shirai T, Sano M, Tamano S, Takahashi S, Hirose M, Futakuchi M, Hasegawa R, Imaida K, Matsumoto K, Wakabayashi K, Sugimura T, Ito N (1997) The prostate: a target for carcinogenicity of 2-amino-1-metyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine(PhIP) derived from cooked foods. Cancer Res 57:195–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Smith CJ, Perfetti TA, Rumple MA, Rodgman A, Doolittle DJ (2001) “IARC Group 2B carcinogen” reported in cigarette mainstream smoke. Food Chem Toxicol 39:183–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Stuart GR, Holcroft J, Boer JG, Glickman BW (2000) Prostate mutations in rats induced by the suspected human carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. Cancer Res 60:266–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Veierod MB, Laake P, Thelle DS (1997) Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer:a prospective study of 25708 Norwegian men. Int J Cancer 73:634–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Watson MA, Stewart RK, Smith GBJ, Massey TE, Bell DA (1998) Human glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphisms: relationship to lung tissue enzyme activity and population frequency distribution. Carcinogenesis 19:275–280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuhiro Komiya
    • 1
  • Hiromasa Tsukino
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Nakao
    • 1
  • Yoshiki Kuroda
    • 1
  • Hirohisa Imai
    • 1
  • Takahiko Katoh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public HealthMiyazaki Medical College, University of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan

Personalised recommendations