Preliminary study on bisphenol A levels and possible exposure history of mother and exclusively breastfed infant pairs
The aims of this study were to determine bisphenol A (BPA) levels in breast milk and urine specimens of healthy mother and exclusively breastfed infant pairs having no known BPA exposure, and also to examine the relationship between BPA levels and possible BPA exposure history. Forty mothers and their 1–2-month-old exclusively breastfeed infant were included in the study. The questionnaires about sociodemographic characteristics and possible BPA exposure history were filled out. Breast milk and urine samples were taken. BPA analyses of these samples were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. All mother-infant pairs showed detectable BPA concentrations. The geometric means of BPA levels in breast milk, maternal urine, and infant urine were determined as 0.12 μg/L (0.03–0.59), 0.12 μg/L (0.03–0.73), and 0.13 μg/L (0.02–0.44), respectively. Infants whose mothers were consuming yoghurt in plastic containers had relatively higher urinary BPA levels (p = 0.00). Mothers consuming hot beverages in plastic glass showed higher breast milk BPA levels (p = 0.033). There were no statistical associations between BPA levels and the use of plastic materials and tools (p > 0.05).
What is Known:
• Fetuses, neonates and infants are exposed to BPA from their mothers through placental transfer and breastfeeding.
• Breast milk is considered a continuous low-level exposure to BPA.
What is New:
• BPA was detected in 100% of maternal urine, infant urine, and breast milk in healthy mother-infant pairs having no known BPA exposure.
• The measurable amount of BPA in breast milk and infant urine may reflect possible BPA exposure of mother-infant pairs.
KeywordsBisphenol A Breast milk Maternal urine Infant urine Exclusively breastfeeding Exposure
Body mass index
High-performance liquid chromatography
High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry
Ultra high temperature
Dr. Sayıcı prepared the application report for funding source, designed the data collection instruments, collected data, and performed the statistical analysis.
Prof. Orhon conceptualized and designed the study, designed the data collection instruments, revised the application report for funding source, performed the statistical analysis, interpreted the data, and prepared and edited the manuscript.
Assoc. Prof. Topcu collected data, and interpreted the statistical data.
Prof. Ulukol supervised the data collection process.
Prof. Baskan supervised the data collection process.
All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.
The study is supported by Ankara University Research Fund (Project code 16 L0230005).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research ethics committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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