Childhood obesity and its physical and psychological co-morbidities: a systematic review of Australian children and adolescents
- 5.3k Downloads
Australia is predicted to have the highest overweight/obesity rate in the world by 2022 outranking the USA and UK. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the associations between childhood obesity and physical and psychological health co-morbidities. Therefore, a systematic literature search was conducted from six databases (2004–2014). Studies were included if they investigated obesity-related co-morbidities with participants residing in Australia aged 0–18 years. Forty-seven studies fulfilled selection criteria. Evidence suggests that overweight/obese Australian children and adolescents, compared to normal-weight peers, had more cardio-metabolic risk factors and higher risk factors of non-alcohol fatty liver disease and were experiencing more negative psychological outcomes (depression, low self-esteem and lower scores of health-related quality of life). Many other health consequences have either not been investigated in Australia, or as frequently as in other countries.
What is Known:
•Trend analyses have shown that obesity prevalence in Australia is increasing and will outrank UK and the USA by 2022.
•Every third Australian child/adolescent between 5 and 19 years old is predicted to be classified as overweight or obese by 2025.
•Childhood obesity is associated with multiple immediate physical and psychological health co-morbidities as well as co-morbidities in adulthood. These have often been identified and examined individually.
What is New:
•This paper presents a holistic picture of childhood obesity and the associated multiple co-morbidities in Australia.
•The extensive health-related outcomes from childhood obesity and those requiring further research are identified.
•The findings of this paper will influence the development of local/regional, state and national strategies to change Australia’s future trajectory.
KeywordsObesity Overweight Co-morbidity Systematic review Childhood Adolescents Australia
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Body mass index
Diastolic blood pressure
Health-related quality of life
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein
Non-alcohol fatty liver disease
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
Systolic blood pressure
The World Health Organization
Conflict of interest
There was no funding or sponsorship of this research. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This research was conceived and directed by RS and SC as part of a series of studies on adolescent obesity at The University of Sydney. AH conducted a comprehensive systematic literature search, study selection and data extraction. All authors contributed to writing and reviewing the document at all stages, reviewed and approved the manuscript prior to submission. Each of our authors meets the standard criteria for authorship.
The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.
- 3.Australia’s Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines. Accessed: January 16 2015 http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/health-pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines#apa512
- 4.Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Health Survey: Updated Results 2011-2012. Accessed: August 4 2014 http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4364.0.55.0032011-2012?OpenDocument
- 5.Australian Institute of health and Welfare. Young Australians: Their Health and Wellbeing 2011. Accessed: September 14 2014 http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737419259
- 8.Bell L, Hung J, Knuiman M, Divitini M, Beilby J, Hunter M, Mollison L, Thompson P, McQuillan B, Davis E (2013) Body mass index and waist circumference: relationship to cardiometabolic risk factors in children--Busselton Health Study 2005-2007. J Paediatr Child Health 49:955–962. doi: 10.1111/jpc.12298 PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Bell LM, Byrne S, Thompson A, Ratnam N, Blair E, Bulsara M, Jones TW, Davis EA (2007) Increasing body mass index z-score is continuously associated with complications of overweight in children, even in the healthy weight range. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:517–522. doi: 10.1210/jc.2006-1714 PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Blackburn P, Lemieux I, Almeras N, Bergeron J, Cote M, Tremblay A, Lamarche B, Despres JP (2009) The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype versus the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation clinical criteria to identify high-risk men with an altered cardiometabolic risk profile. Metab Clin Exp 58:1123–1130. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.03.012 PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Booth ML, George J, Denney-Wilson E, Okely AD, Hardy LL, Aitken R, Dobbins T (2008) The population prevalence of adverse concentrations and associations with adiposity of liver tests among Australian adolescents. J Paediatr Child Health 44:686–691. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2008.01407.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Burke V, Beilin LJ, Simmer K, Oddy WH, Blake KV, Doherty D, Kendall GE, Newnham JP, Landau LI, Stanley FJ (2005) Predictors of body mass index and associations with cardiovascular risk factors in Australian children: a prospective cohort study. Int J Obesity 29:15–23. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802750 Google Scholar
- 33.The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp. Accessed October 3, 2014
- 34.Gardin JM, McClelland R, Kitzman D, Lima JA, Bommer W, Klopfenstein HS, Wong ND, Smith VE, Gottdiener J (2001) M-mode echocardiographic predictors of six- to seven-year incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, and mortality in an elderly cohort (the Cardiovascular Health Study). Am J Cardiol 87:1051–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 39.Haby M, Markwick A (2008) Future prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian children and adolescents, 2005-2025. Victorian Government, Department of Human Services, Melbourne, Australia. http://docs.health.vic.gov.au/docs/doc/768FD9A0683F9259CA2578EC0081AD6A/$FILE/future_overweight_prevalence_report.pdf
- 46.Hoare E, Millar L, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, Skouteris H, Nichols M, Jacka F, Swinburn B, Chikwendu C, Allender S (2014) Associations between obesogenic risk and depressive symptomatology in Australian adolescents: a cross-sectional study. J Epidemiol Community Health 68:767–772. doi: 10.1136/jech-2013-203562 PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 53.Ke L, Brock KE, Cant RV, Li Y, Morrell SL (2009) The relationship between obesity and blood pressure differs by ethnicity in Sydney school children. Am J Hypertens 22:10.1038/ajh.2008.308–58Google Scholar
- 58.Kohler MJ, Thormaehlen S, Kennedy JD, Pamula Y, van den Heuvel CJ, Lushington K, Martin AJ (2009) Differences in the association between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea among children and adolescents. J Clin Sleep Med : JCSM : Offic Publ Am Acad Sleep Med 5:506–511Google Scholar
- 59.Koletzko B, von Kries R, Monasterolo RC, Subias JE, Scaglioni S, Giovannini M, Beyer J, Demmelmair H, Anton B, Gruszfeld D, Dobrzanska A, Sengier A, Langhendries JP, Cachera MF, Grote V, European Childhood Obesity Trial Study G (2009) Infant feeding and later obesity risk. Adv Exp Med Biol 646:15–29. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9173-5_2 Google Scholar
- 66.Mamun AA, Lawlor DA, Alati R, O’Callaghan MJ, Williams GM, Najman JM (2007) Increasing body mass index from age 5 to 14 years predicts asthma among adolescents: evidence from a birth cohort study. Int J Obes 31:578–583Google Scholar
- 69.Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, Mullany EC, Biryukov S, Abbafati C, Abera SF, Abraham JP, Abu-Rmeileh NM, Achoki T, AlBuhairan FS, Alemu ZA, Alfonso R, Ali MK, Ali R, Guzman NA, Ammar W, Anwari P, Banerjee A, Barquera S, Basu S, Bennett DA, Bhutta Z, Blore J, Cabral N, Nonato IC, Chang JC, Chowdhury R, Courville KJ, Criqui MH, Cundiff DK, Dabhadkar KC, Dandona L, Davis A, Dayama A, Dharmaratne SD, Ding EL, Durrani AM, Esteghamati A, Farzadfar F, Fay DF, Feigin VL, Flaxman A, Forouzanfar MH, Goto A, Green MA, Gupta R, Hafezi-Nejad N, Hankey GJ, Harewood HC, Havmoeller R, Hay S, Hernandez L, Husseini A, Idrisov BT, Ikeda N, Islami F, Jahangir E, Jassal SK, Jee SH, Jeffreys M, Jonas JB, Kabagambe EK, Khalifa SE, Kengne AP, Khader YS, Khang YH, Kim D, Kimokoti RW, Kinge JM, Kokubo Y, Kosen S, Kwan G, Lai T, Leinsalu M, Li Y, Liang X, Liu S, Logroscino G, Lotufo PA, Lu Y, Ma J, Mainoo NK, Mensah GA, Merriman TR, Mokdad AH, Moschandreas J, Naghavi M, Naheed A, Nand D, Narayan KM, Nelson EL, Neuhouser ML, Nisar MI, Ohkubo T, Oti SO, Pedroza A, Prabhakaran D, Roy N, Sampson U, Seo H, Sepanlou SG, Shibuya K, Shiri R, Shiue I, Singh GM, Singh JA, Skirbekk V, Stapelberg NJ, Sturua L, Sykes BL, Tobias M, Tran BX, Trasande L, Toyoshima H, van de Vijver S, Vasankari TJ, Veerman JL, Velasquez-Melendez G, Vlassov VV, Vollset SE, Vos T, Wang C, Wang SX, Weiderpass E, Werdecker A, Wright JL, Yang YC, Yatsuya H, Yoon J, Yoon SJ, Zhao Y, Zhou M, Zhu S, Lopez AD, Murray CJ, Gakidou E (2014) Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(14)60460-8 Google Scholar
- 70.NSW Ministry of Health. SPANS 2010 Executive Summary. Physical Activity, Nutrition and Obesity Research Group, Sydney University Accessed: July 25 2014 http://www0.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2011/pdf/spans_2010_summary.pdf
- 74.Olutoye OA, Watcha MF, Andropoulos DB (2011) Pediatric obesity: observed impact in the ambulatory surgery setting. J Nat Med Assoc 103:27–30Google Scholar
- 77.Peneau S, Salanave B, Maillard-Teyssier L, Rolland-Cachera MF, Vergnaud AC, Mejean C, Czernichow S, Vol S, Tichet J, Castetbon K, Hercberg S (2009) Prevalence of overweight in 6- to 15-year-old children in central/western France from 1996 to 2006: trends toward stabilization. Int J Obes 33:401–407Google Scholar
- 80.Reilly JJ, Kelly J (2011) Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review. Int J Obesa 35:891–898Google Scholar
- 84.Sassi F (2010) Obesity and the economics of prevention: fit not fat. OECD Publishing, Paris, France. doi: 10.1787/9789264084865-en or http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/obesity-and-the-economics-of-prevention_9789264084865-en
- 85.Sassi F (2014) Obesity and the Economics of Prevention: Fit not Fat. OBESITY update. OECD Publishing. http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Obesity-Update-2014.pdf
- 92.Stamatakis E, Wardle J, Cole TJ (2009) Childhood obesity and overweight prevalence trends in England: evidence for growing socioeconomic disparities. Int J Obes 34:41–47Google Scholar
- 93.Stevens GA, Singh GM, Lu Y, Danaei G, Lin JK, Finucane MM, Bahalim AN, McIntire RK, Gutierrez HR, Cowan M, Paciorek CJ, Farzadfar F, Riley L, Ezzati M, Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating G, (2012) National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences. Popul Health Metrics 10:22. doi: 10.1186/1478-7954-10-22 Google Scholar
- 100.Thivel D, Tremblay MS, Chaput JP (2013) Modern Sedentary Behaviors Favor Energy Consumption in Children and Adolescents. Curr Obes Rep 2:50–57Google Scholar
- 109.Williams J, Wake M, Hesketh K, Maher E, Waters E (2005) Health-related quality of life of overweight and obese children. JAMA : J Am Med Assoc 293:70–76Google Scholar
- 110.World Health Oraganization. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Accessed: March 24 2015 http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/strategy/eb11344/strategy_english_web.pdf
- 111.World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory (GHO): Overweight and obesity. Accessed: July 16 2014 http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/overweight/en/
- 112.World Health Organization. Obesity and Overweight- updated 2014. vol 2014. Accessed: July 16 2014 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/
- 113.World Health Organization. Population-based approaches to CHILDHOOD OBESITY PREVENTION.Accessed: March 24 2015 http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/WHO_new_childhoodobesity_PREVENTION_2027nov_HR_PRINT_OK.pdf