Advertisement

European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 174, Issue 5, pp 565–576 | Cite as

Vitamin D in childhood and adolescence: an expert position statement

  • Giuseppe SaggeseEmail author
  • Francesco Vierucci
  • Annemieke M. Boot
  • Justyna Czech-Kowalska
  • Giovanna Weber
  • Carlos A. CamargoJr
  • Eric Mallet
  • Margherita Fanos
  • Nick J. Shaw
  • Michael F. Holick
Review

Abstract

Vitamin D is a key hormone in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and plays a pivotal role in bone health, particularly during pediatric age when nutritional rickets and impaired bone mass acquisition may occur. Great interest has been placed in recent years on vitamin D’s extraskeletal actions. However, while recent data suggest a possible role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of several pathological conditions, including infectious and autoimmune diseases, the actual impact of vitamin D status on the global health of children and adolescents, other than bone, remains a subject of debate. In the meantime, pediatricians still need to evaluate the determinants of vitamin D status and consider vitamin D supplementation in children and adolescents at risk of deficiency. This review is the result of an expert meeting that was held during the congress “Update on vitamin D and bone disease in childhood” convened in Pisa, Italy, in May 2013.

Conclusion: The collaboration of the international group of experts produced this “state of the art” review on vitamin D in childhood and adolescence. After dealing with vitamin D status and its determinants, the review outlines the current debate on vitamin D’s health benefits, concluding with a practical approach to vitamin D supplementation during childhood and adolescence.

What is Known:

Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem.

Vitamin D deficiency affects not only musculoskeletal health but also a potentially wide range of acute and chronic diseases.

What is New:

We reviewed the literature focusing on randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation during childhood and adolescence.

This review will help pediatricians to appreciate the clinical relevance of an adequate vitamin D status and it will provide a practical approach to vitamin D supplementation.

Keywords

Vitamin D 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Children Adolescents Supplementation 

Abbreviations

1,25(OH)2D

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D

25(OH)D

25-hydroxyvitamin D

AAP

American Academy of Pediatrics

AD

Atopic dermatitis

ARI

Acute respiratory infection

BMD

Bone mineral density

BMI

Body mass index

ESPGHAN

European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition

IOM

Institute of Medicine

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

UVB

Ultraviolet B

VDR

Vitamin D receptor

Conversion factors (International Units–Conventional Units)

25-Hydroxyvitamin D

nmol/L = ng/mL * 2.496

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

GS, FV, AMB, JCK, GW, CAC Jr, MF, NJS, and MFH prepared the manuscript and searched the literature. Particularly, GS, FV, and MF wrote the sections “Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and definition of vitamin D status” and “Vitamin D supplementation during childhood and adolescence”; GW and MFH wrote the section “Determinants of vitamin D status”; NJS and AMB wrote the section “Skeletal consequences of vitamin D deficiency”; MFH and CAC Jr wrote the section “Extraskeletal consequences of vitamin D deficiency”; JCK wrote the section “Vitamin D status in pregnancy and neonatal age”; NJS wrote the section “Treatment of vitamin D deficiency.” All the authors reviewed the manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Abrams SA, Hawthorne KM, Chen Z (2013) Supplementation with 1000 IU vitamin D/d leads to parathyroid hormone suppression, but not increased fractional calcium absorption, in 4-8-y-old children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 97:217–223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abrams SA, the Committee on Nutrition (2013) Calcium and vitamin D requirements for enterally fed preterm infants. Pediatrics 131:e1676-683Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Absoud M, Cummins C, Lim MJ, Wassmer E, Shaw N (2011) Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D insufficiency in children: a Great Britain population based study. PLoS One 6:6–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aggarwal V, Seth A, Aneja S, Sharma B, Sonkar P, Singh S, Marwaha RK (2012) Role of calcium deficiency in development of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a case control study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:3461–3466CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aggarwal V, Seth A, Marwaha RK, Sharma B, Sonkar P, Singh S, Aneja S (2013) Management of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a randomized controlled trial. J Trop Pediatr 59:127–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aghajafari F, Nagulesapillai T, Ronksley PE, Tough SC, O'Beirne M, Rabi DM (2013) Association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ 346:f1169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Agostoni C, Buonocore G, Carnielli VP, De Curtis M, Darmaun D, Decsi T, Domellöf M, Embleton ND, Fusch C, Genzel-Boroviczeny O, Goulet O, Kalhan SC, Kolacek S, Koletzko B, Lapillonne A, Mihatsch W, Moreno L, Neu J, Poindexter B, Puntis J, Putet G, Rigo J, Riskin A, Salle B, Sauer P, Shamir R, Szajewska H, Thureen P, Turck D, van Goudoever JB, Ziegler EE, ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition (2010) Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants: commentary from the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 50:85–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allen KJ, Koplin JJ, Ponsonby AL, Gurrin LC, Wake M, Vuillermin P, Martin P, Matheson M, Lowe A, Robinson M, Tey D, Osborne NJ, Dang T, Tina Tan HT, Thiele L, Anderson D, Czech H, Sanjeevan J, Zurzolo G, Dwyer T, Tang ML, Hill D, Dharmage SC (2013) Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with challenge-proven food allergy in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol 131:1109–1116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    American Academy of Pediatrics (2012) Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Pediatrics 130:1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arundel P, Ahmed SF, Allgrove J, Bishop NJ, Burren CP, Jacobs B, Mughal MZ, Offiah AC, Shaw NJ (2012) British Paediatric and Adolescent Bone Group: British Paediatric and Adolescent Bone Group's position statement on vitamin D deficiency. BMJ 345:e8182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Atapattu N, Shaw N, Högler W (2013) Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone in the search for a biochemical definition of vitamin D deficiency in children. Pediatr Res 74:552–556CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Atas E, Karademır F, Ersen A, Meral C, Aydınoz S, Suleymanoglu S, Gultepe M, Gocmen İ (2013) Comparison between daily supplementation doses of 200 versus 400 IU of vitamin D in infants. Eur J Pediatr 172:1039–1042CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Backström MC, Mäki R, Kuusela AL, Sievänen H, Koivisto AM, Ikonen RS, Kouri T, Mäki M (1999) Randomised controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on bone density and biochemical indices in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 80:F161–F166CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beck-Nielsen SS, Brock-Jacobsen B, Gram J, Brixen K, Jensen TK (2009) Incidence and prevalence of nutritional and hereditary rickets in Southern Denmark. Eur J Endocrinol 160:491–497CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bergman P, Lindh AU, Björkhem-Bergman L, Lindh JD (2013) Vitamin D and respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 8:e65835CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boot AM, de Ridder MA, van der Sluis IM, van Slobbe I, Krenning EP, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM (2010) Peak bone mineral density, lean body mass and fractures. Bone 46:336–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Borzutzky A, Camargo CA Jr (2013) Role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and treatment of atopic dermatitis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 9:751–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Braegger C, Campoy C, Colomb V, Decsi T, Domellof M, Fewtrell M, Hojsak I, Mihatsch W, Molgaard C, Shamir R, Turck D, van Goudoever J, ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition (2013) Vitamin D in the healthy European paediatric population. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 56:692–701CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    British National Formulary for Children 2012. Available at www.bnf.org/ (accessed 23 Sept 2014)
  20. 20.
    Callaghan AL, Moy RJ, Booth IW, Debelle G, Shaw NJ (2006) Incidence of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency. Arch Dis Child 91:606–607CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Camargo CA Jr, Ganmaa D, Sidbury R, Erdenedelger K, Radnaakhand N, Khandsuren B (2014) Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation for winter-related atopic dermatitis in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 134:831–835CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Camargo CA Jr, Mansbach JM, Ginde AA (2011) Vitamin D, childhood wheezing, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Feldman D, Adams J, Pike W (eds) Vitamin D, 3rd edn. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA, pp 1999–2021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Commission directive 2006/141/EC of 22 December 2006 on infant formulae and follow-on formulae and amending Directive 1999/21/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 2006. Available at https://www.fsai.ie/uploadedFiles/Dir2006_141.pdf (accessed 23 Sept 2014)
  24. 24.
    Dawodu A, Saadi HF, Bekdache G, Javed Y, Altaye M, Hollis BW (2013) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy in a population with endemic vitamin D deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:2337–2346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    De Laine KM, Matthews G, Grivell RM (2013) Prospective audit of vitamin D levels of women presenting for their first antenatal visit at a tertiary centre. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 53:353–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    DeLucia MC, Mitnick ME, Carpenter TO (2003) Nutritional rickets with normal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a call for reexamining the role of dietary calcium intake in North American infants. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3539–3545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Delvin EE, Salle BL, Claris O, Putet G, Hascoet JM, Desnoulez L, Messai S, Lévy E (2005) Oral vitamin A, E and D supplementation of pre-term newborns either breast-fed or formula-fed: a 3-month longitudinal study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 40:43–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Disanto G, Chaplin G, Morahan JM, Giovannoni G, Hypponen E, Ebers GC, Ramagopalan SV (2012) Month of birth, vitamin D and risk of immunemediated disease: a case control study. BMC Med 10:69CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dong JY, Zhang WG, Chen JJ, Zhang ZL, Han SF, Qin LQ (2013) Vitamin D intake and risk of type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrients 5:3551–3562CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dong Y, Pollock N, Stallmann-Jorgensen IS, Gutin B, Lan L, Chen TC, Keeton D, Petty K, Holick MF, Zhu H (2010) Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in adolescents: race, season, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness. Pediatrics 125:1104–1111CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dong Y, Stallmann-Jorgensen IS, Pollock NK, Harris RA, Keeton D, Huang Y, Li K, Bassali R, Guo DH, Thomas J, Pierce GL, White J, Holick MF, Zhu H (2010) A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D3 supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:4584–4591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Nabulsi M, Tamim H, Maalouf J, Salamoun M, Khalife H, Choucair M, Arabi A, Vieth R (2006) Effect of vitamin D replacement on musculoskeletal parameters in school children: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:405–412CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Endo I, Inoue D, Mitsui T, Umaki Y, Akaike M, Yoshizawa T, Kato S, Matsumoto T (2003) Deletion of vitamin D receptor gene in mice results in abnormal skeletal muscle development with deregulated expression of myoregulatory transcription factors. Endocrinology 144:5138–5144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gallo S, Comeau K, Vanstone C, Agellon S, Sharma A, Jones G, L'Abbé M, Khamessan A, Rodd C, Weiler H (2013) Effect of different dosages of oral vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status in healthy, breastfed infants: a randomized trial. JAMA 309:1785–1792CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gallo S, Phan A, Vanstone CA, Rodd C, Weiler HA (2013) The change in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D did not differ between breast-fed infants that received a daily supplement of ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol for 3 months. J Nutr 143:148–153CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Giapros VI, Schiza V, Challa AS, Cholevas VK, Theocharis PD, Kolios G, Pantou C, Andronikou SK (2012) Vitamin D and parathormone levels of late-preterm formula fed infants during the first year of life. Eur J Clin Nutr 66:224–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Girgis CM, Clifton-Bligh RJ, Hamrick MW, Holick MF, Gunton JE (2013) The roles of vitamin D in skeletal muscle: form, function, and metabolism. Endocr Rev 34:33–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Girgis CM, Mokbel N, Cha KM, Houweling PJ, Abboud M, Fraser DR, Mason RS, Clifton-Bligh RJ, Gunton JE (2014) The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in skeletal muscle of male mice and modulates 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) uptake in myofibers. Endocrinology 155:3227–3237CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    González-Gross M, Valtueña J, Breidenassel C, Moreno LA, Ferrari M, Kersting M, De Henauw S, Gottrand F, Azzini E, Widhalm K, Kafatos A, Manios Y, Stehle P, HELENA Study Group (2012) Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the healthy lifestyle in Europe by nutrition in adolescence study. Br J Nutr 107:755–764CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hanson C, Armas L, Lyden E, Anderson-Berry A (2011) Vitamin D status and associations in newborn formula-fed infants during initial hospitalization. J Am Diet Assoc 111:1836–1843CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Harvey NC, Holroyd C, Ntani G, Javaid K, Cooper P, Moon R, Cole Z, Tinati T, Godfrey K, Dennison E, Bishop NJ, Baird J, Cooper C (2014) Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess 18:1–190CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hashemipour S, Lalooha F, Zahir Mirdamadi S, Ziaee A, Dabaghi Ghaleh T (2013) Effect of vitamin D administration in vitamin D-deficient pregnant women on maternal and neonatal serum calcium and vitamin D concentrations: a randomised clinical trial. Br J Nutr 110:1611–1616CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hewison M (2012) Vitamin D and immune function: an overview. Proc Nutr Soc 71:50–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Holick MF (2012) The D-lightful vitamin D for child health. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 36(Suppl 1):9S–19SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM, Endocrine Society (2011) Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:1911–1930CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Holick MF, Chen TC, Sauter ER (2007) Vitamin D and skin physiology: a D-lightful story. J Bone Miner Res 22:V28–V33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Holick MF, MacLaughlin JA, Clark MB, Holick SA, Potts JT Jr, Anderson RR, Blank IH, Parrish JA, Elias P (1980) Photosynthesis of previtamin D3 in human skin and the physiologic consequences. Science 210:203–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hollis BW, Johnson D, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Wagner CL (2011) Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. J Bone Miner Res 26:2341–2357CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Holmlund-Suila E, Viljakainen H, Hytinantti T, Lamberg-Allardt C, Andersson S, Mäkitie O (2012) High-dose vitamin D intervention in infants–effects on vitamin d status, calcium homeostasis, and bone strength. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:4139–4147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hossein-nezhad A, Holick MF (2012) Optimize dietary intake of vitamin D: an epigenetic perspective. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15:567–579CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hossein-nezhad A, Holick MF (2013) Vitamin D for health: a global perspective. Mayo Clin Proc 88:720–755CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hossein-nezhad A, Spira A, Holick MF (2013) Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. PLoS One 8:e58725CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hyppönen E, Cavadino A, Williams D, Fraser A, Vereczkey A, Fraser WD, Bánhidy F, Lawlor D, Czeizel AE (2013) Vitamin D and pre-eclampsia: original data, systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Nutr Metab 63:331–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    IOM (Institute of Medicine) (2011) Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Committee to review dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jolliffe DA, Griffiths CJ, Martineau AR (2013) Vitamin D in the prevention of acute respiratory infection: systematic review of clinical studies. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 136:321–329CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Khadilkar A, Das G, Sayyad M, Sanwalka N, Bhandari D, Khadilkar V, Mughal MZ (2007) Low calcium intake and hypovitaminosis D in adolescent girls. Arch Dis Child 92:1045CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kim SH, Oh MK, Namgung R, Park MJ (2012) Prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in Korean adolescents: association with age, season and parental vitamin D status. Pub Health Nutr 17:122–130Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Koo WW, Krug-Wispe S, Neylan M, Succop P, Oestreich AE, Tsang RC (1995) Effect of three levels of vitamin D intake in preterm infants receiving high mineral-containing milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 21:182–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kumar J, Muntner P, Kaskel FJ, Hailpern SM, Michal L (2009) Prevalence and associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in US children: NHANES 2001–2004. Pediatrics 124:362–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lamberg-Allardt CJE, Viljakainen HT (2008) 25-hydroxyvitamin D and functional outcomes in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 88:534S–536SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lawlor DA, Wills AK, Fraser A, Sayers A, Fraser WD, Tobias JH (2013) Association of maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with bone-mineral content in offspring: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 381:2176–2183CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lewis RD, Laing EM, Hill Gallant KM, Hall DB, McCabe GP, Hausman DB, Martin BR, Warden SJ, Peacock M, Weaver CM (2013) A randomized trial of vitamin D3 supplementation in children: dose-response effects on vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:4816–4825CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Litonjua AA, Lange NE, Carey VJ, Brown S, Laranjo N, Harshfield BJ, O'Connor GT, Sandel M, Strunk RC, Bacharier LB, Zeiger RS, Schatz M, Hollis BW, Weiss ST (2014) The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART): rationale, design, and methods of a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy for the primary prevention of asthma and allergies in children. Contemp Clin Trials 38:37–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Maguire JL, Birken CS, Khovratovich M, Degroot J, Carsley S, Thorpe KE, Mamdani M, Parkin PC, TARGet Kids! Collaboration (2013) Modifiable determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in early childhood: opportunities for prevention. JAMA Pediatr 167:230–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mansbach JM, Ginde AA, Camargo CA Jr (2009) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among US children aged 1 to 11 years: do children need more vitamin D? Pediatrics 124:1404–1410CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Merewood A, Mehta SD, Grossman X, Chen TC, Mathieu J, Holick MF, Bauchner H (2012) Vitamin D status among 4-month-old infants in New England: a prospective cohort study. J Hum Lact 28:159–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Misra M, Pacaud D, Petryk A, Collett-Solberg PF, Kappy M, Drug and Therapeutics Committee of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society (2008) Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics 122:398–417CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mittal H, Rai S, Shah D, Madhu SV, Mehrotra G, Malhotra RK, Gupta P (2014) 300,000 IU or 600,000 IU of oral vitamin D3 for treatment of nutritional rickets: a randomized controlled trial. Indian Pediatr 51:265–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Narchi H, El-Jamil M, Kuyalat N (2001) Symptomatic rickets in adolescence. Arch Dis Child 84:501–503CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Natarajan CK, Sankar MJ, Agarwal R, Pratap OT, Jain V, Gupta N, Gupta AK, Deorari AK, Paul VK, Sreenivas V (2014) Trial of daily vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants. Pediatrics 133:e628–e634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pettifor JM (2004) Nutritional rickets: deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or both? Am J Clin Nutr 80(Suppl 6):1725S–1729SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Poopedi MA, Norris SA, Pettifor JM (2011) Factors influencing the vitamin D status of 10-years-old urban South African children. Public Health Nutr 14:334–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Reinehr T, De SG, Alexy U, Kersting M, Andler W (2007) Vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone in obese children before and after weight loss. Eur J Endocrinol 157:225–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Robien K, Oppeneer SJ, Kelly JA, Hamilton-Reeves JM (2013) Drug-vitamin D interactions: a systematic review of the literature. Nutr Clin Pract 28:194–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Roth DE, Al Mahmud A, Raqib R, Akhtar E, Perumal N, Pezzack B, Baqui AH (2013) Randomized placebo-controlled trial of high-dose prenatal third-trimester vitamin D3 supplementation in Bangladesh: the AViDD trial. Nutr J 12:47CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rothers J, Wright AL, Stern DA, Halonen M, Camargo CA Jr (2011) Cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with aeroallergen sensitization in children from Tucson, Arizona. J Allergy Clin Immunol 128:1093–1099CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ryan LM, Teach SJ, Singer SA, Wood R, Freishtat R, Wright JL, McCarter R, Tosi L, Chamberlain JM (2012) Bone mineral density and vitamin D status among African American children with forearm fractures. Pediatrics 130:e553–e560CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Santos BR, Mascarenhas LPG, Satler F, Boguszewski MCS, Spritzer PM (2012) Vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and association with vitamin D receptor gene variants. BMC Pediatr 12:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sioen I, Mouratidou T, Kaufman JM, Bammann K, Michels N, Pigeot I, Vanaelst B, Vyncke K, De Henauw S, IDEFICS consortium (2012) Determinants of vitamin D status in young children: results from the Belgian arm of the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study. Public Health Nutr 15:1093–1099CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (2013) Recommended vitamin D intake and management of low vitamin D status in adolescents: a position statement of the society for adolescent health and medicine. J Adolesc Health 52:801–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Srivastava T, Garg U, Ruiz M, Dai H, Alon US (2013) Serum 25(OH)-vitamin D level in children: is there a need to change the reference range based on 2011 Institute of Medicine report? Clin Pediatr 52:178–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Thacher TD, Fischer PR, Tebben PJ, Singh RJ, Cha SS, Maxson JA, Yawn BP (2013) Increasing incidence of nutritional rickets: a population based study in Olmsted county, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc 88:176–183CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Turer CB, Lin H, Flores G (2013) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among overweight and obese US children. Pediatrics 131:152–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vandevijvere S, Amsalkhir S, Van Oyen H, Moreno-Reyes R (2012) High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: a national cross-sectional survey. PLoS One 7:e43868CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Vanlint S (2013) Vitamin D and obesity. Nutrients 5:949–956CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Vanstone MB, Oberfield SE, Shader L, Ardeshirpour L, Carpenter TO (2012) Hypercalcaemia in children receiving pharmacologic doses of Vitamin D. Pediatrics 129:e1060–e1063CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Vassallo MF, Camargo CA Jr (2010) Potential mechanisms for the hypothesized link between sunshine, vitamin D, and food allergy in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 126:217–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Vidailhet M, Mallet E, Bocquet A, Bresson JL, Briend A, Chouraqui JP, Darmaun D, Dupont C, Frelut ML, Ghisolfi J, Girardet JP, Goulet O, Hankard R, Rieu D, Simeoni U, Turck D, Comité de nutrition de la Société française de pédiatrie (2012) Vitamin D: still a topical matter in children and adolescents. A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics. Arch Pediatr 19:316–328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Vierucci F, Del Pistoia M, Fanos M, Gori M, Carlone G, Erba P, Massimetti G, Federico G, Saggese G (2013) Vitamin D status and predictors of hypovitaminosis D in Italian children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Pediatr 172:1607–1617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wacker M, Holick MF (2013) Vitamin D - Effects on skeletal and extraskeletal health and the need for supplementation. Nutrients 5:111–148CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wacker M, Holick MF (2013) Sunlight and vitamin D: a global perspective for health. Dermato Endocrinol 5:51–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wagner CL, Greer FR, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition (2008) Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics 122:1142–1152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wagner CL, McNeil R, Hamilton SA, Winkler J, Rodriguez Cook C, Warner G, Bivens B, Davis DJ, Smith PG, Murphy M, Shary JR, Hollis BW (2013) A randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation in 2 community health center networks in South Carolina. Am J Obstet Gynecol 208:137.e1-e13Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wagner CL, McNeil RB, Johnson DD, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Robinson C, Hamilton SA, Hollis BW (2013) Health characteristics and outcomes of two randomized vitamin D supplementation trials during pregnancy: a combined analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 136:313–320CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wagner CL, Taylor SN, Hollis BW (2008) Does vitamin D make the world go ‘round’? Breastfeed Med 3:239–250CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wall CR, Grant CC, Jones I (2013) Vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed infants aged 2-3 months. Arch Dis Child 98:176–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Webb AR, DeCosta BR, Holick MF (1989) Sunlight regulates the cutaneous production of vitamin D3 by causing its photodegradation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 68:882–887CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Weisse K, Winkler S, Hirche F, Herberth G, Hinz D, Bauer M, Röder S, Rolle-Kampczyk U, von Bergen M, Olek S, Sack U, Richter T, Diez U, Borte M, Stangl GI, Lehmann I (2013) Maternal and newborn vitamin D status and its impact on food allergy development in the German LINA cohort study. Allergy 68:220–228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Whiting SJ, Langlois KA, Vatanparast H, Greene-Finestone LS (2011) The vitamin D status of Canadians relative to the 2011 dietary reference intakes: an examination in children and adults with and without supplement use. Am J Clin Nutr 94:128–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Winzenberg T, Powell S, Shaw KA, Jones G (2011) Effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone density in healthy children: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 342:c7254CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yadav M, Mittal K (2014) Effect of vitamin D supplementation on moderate to severe bronchial asthma. Indian J Pediatr 81:650–654CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yetley EA (2008) Assessing the vitamin D status of the US population. Am J Clin Nutr 88:558–564Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zhu K, Prince RL (2012) Calcium and bone. Clin Biochem 45:936–942CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Saggese
    • 1
  • Francesco Vierucci
    • 2
  • Annemieke M. Boot
    • 3
  • Justyna Czech-Kowalska
    • 4
  • Giovanna Weber
    • 5
  • Carlos A. CamargoJr
    • 6
  • Eric Mallet
    • 7
  • Margherita Fanos
    • 1
  • Nick J. Shaw
    • 8
  • Michael F. Holick
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrine UnitUniversity Hospital of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Pediatric UnitSan Luca HospitalLuccaItaly
  3. 3.Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children’s HospitalUniversity of GroningenGroningenNetherlands
  4. 4.Department of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive CareThe Children’s Memorial Health InstituteWarsawPoland
  5. 5.Department of Pediatrics, San Raffaele Scientific IstituteVita-salute San Raffaele UniversityMilanItaly
  6. 6.Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  7. 7.Department of PediatricsUniversity Hospital Charles NicolleRouenFrance
  8. 8.Department of Endocrinology and DiabetesBirmingham Children’s HospitalBirminghamUK
  9. 9.Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Diabetes, and the Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research LaboratoryBoston University Medical CenterBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations