European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 174, Issue 2, pp 183–190

High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in Dutch multi-ethnic obese children

  • Nalini Radhakishun
  • Mariska van Vliet
  • Ines von Rosenstiel
  • Olivier Weijer
  • Michaela Diamant
  • Jos Beijnen
  • Dees Brandjes
Original Article


Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is common among non-white children; however, little is known about the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in non-white obese children living in the Netherlands. Therefore, a retrospective analysis was performed on data from multi-ethnic Dutch children and adolescents 6–18 years who visited the obesity outpatient clinic in 2012–2013. We performed anthropometric measurements, oral glucose tolerance test, and measured 25(OH)D and lipid levels. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as 25(OH)D levels 37.5- <50 nmol/L and vitamin D deficiency as 25(OH)D <37.5 nmol/L. In total, data from 387 children were obtained (mean age 11.6 years, 41.1 % boys, 10.3 % Dutch native, 25.6 % Turkish, 24.5 % Moroccan, 7.5 % African Surinamese, and 7.0 % West African). The median 25(OH)D level was 34 (range 12–105) nmol/L. In total, 17.8 % were vitamin D sufficient, 24.5 % with vitamin D insufficiency, and 57.6 % with vitamin D deficiency. Obese ethnic children showed the highest (87.5 %) and normal weight white children showed the lowest (20.0 %) prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency . Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency is extremely prevalent in treatment-seeking obese ethnic children. However, there was no evidence of an effect of vitamin D status on various components of the metabolic syndrome in our cohort.


Vitamin D Calcitriol Pediatric obesity Ethnic groups Prevalence 



25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3


Alanine aminotransferase


Body Mass Index


High-density lipoprotein


Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance


Impaired fasting glucose


Impaired glucose metabolism


Impaired glucose tolerance


Insulin resistance


Low-density lipoprotein


Standard deviation


Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Waist circumference


Body Mass Index standard deviation score for age and sex


Waist circumference standard deviation score for age and sex


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nalini Radhakishun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mariska van Vliet
    • 1
  • Ines von Rosenstiel
    • 1
  • Olivier Weijer
    • 1
  • Michaela Diamant
    • 2
  • Jos Beijnen
    • 3
  • Dees Brandjes
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsSlotervaart HospitalAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Diabetes Center, Department of Internal MedicineVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacy & PharmacologySlotervaart HospitalAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Internal MedicineSlotervaart HospitalAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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