Diagnostic accuracy of urine heparin binding protein for pediatric acute pyelonephritis
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Timely antibiotic initiation for acute pyelonephritis (APN) can prevent renal complications. We investigated whether urine heparin binding protein (UHBP), a cytokine released from activated neutrophils, was a useful diagnostic tool for APN. Febrile children with presumed APN were prospectively enrolled between January and September 2013, and divided into two groups based on urine cultures. UHBP levels were measured at enrollment in all children and 1 month after antibiotic treatment in children with APN. UHBP levels in children with APN at baseline and 1 month versus controls were 47.0 ± 8.4 and 16.6 ± 3.8 vs. 15.0 ± 2.9 ng/mL, respectively (p < 0.001). Test performance characteristics were calculated against a gold standard of positive urine cultures and compared with leukocyte esterase (LE) and nitrite measured by dipsticks and pyuria by microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity for UHBP levels ≥34 ng/mL were 100 and 100 %. Spearman’s rank coefficient was used to assess the associations between routine laboratory tests and UHBP levels. Significant positive correlations were found with pyuria grade (Spearman’s rho = 0.62; p < 0.001), neutrophil count (rho = 0.38; p = 0.03), and platelet count (rho = 0.39; p = 0.03). Conclusions: UHBP is a valid adjunctive diagnostic tool for aiding clinicians in making rapid treatment decisions for APN.
KeywordsAcute pyelonephritis Sensitivity Specificity Urine heparin binding protein
Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves
Blood urea nitrogen
Colony forming unit
Glomerular filtration rate
Heparin binding protein
High power field
Negative predictive value
Positive predictive value
Urine heparin binding protein
Urinary tract infection
White blood cell
This work was supported by the Ratchadaphiseksomphot endowment fund, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University (RA 2556-0012), the Higher Education Research Promotion and National Research University Project of Thailand, Office of the Higher Education Commission (HR1155A-55), Thailand Research Fund (DPG5480002), and the Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Chulalongkorn University, Integrated Innovation Academic Center IIAC Chulalongkorn University Centenary Academic Development Project (CU56-HR01).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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