Loeys–Dietz syndrome in a Southeast Asian Hospital: a case series
Loeys–Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a heritable connective tissue disease in which the activity of the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta signalling pathway is disrupted. The clinical features of LDS represent a clinical continuum that includes LDS type 1, with cutaneous, vascular, skeletal and craniofacial findings, and LDS type 2, with cutaneous, vascular and skeletal findings. We describe five Asian patients with genetically confirmed LDS with mutations in either the TGFBR1 or TGFBR2 gene. Their clinical features were similar to those reported in Caucasian patients. Two patients have novel mutations in TGFBR2. Transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was safe and successful in three patients. Treatment with Losartan for aortic root dilatation was well tolerated in our patients, but the outcome is mixed. Among the three patients with follow-up data, aortic root dilatation has improved in two patients but continues to progress in the third patient despite treatment. Conclusion: We describe two novel mutations in TGFBR2 leading to LDS; PDA is common in our patients and can be safely occluded via transcatheter procedure.
KeywordsLoeys–Dietz syndrome Aortic root aneurysm Transforming growth factor beta Connective tissue disease
Patent ductus arteriosus
Transforming growth factor
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Loeys BL, Chen J, Neptune ER, Judge DP, Podowski M, Holm T, Meyers J, Leitch CC, Katsanis N, Sharifi N, Xu FL, Myers LA, Spevak PJ, Cameron DE, De Backer J, Hellemans J, Chen Y, Davis EC, Webb CL, Kress W, Coucke P, Rifkin DB, De Paepe AM, Dietz HC (2005) A syndrome of altered cardiovascular, craniofacial, neurocognitive and skeletal development caused by mutations in TGFBR1 or TGFBR2. Nat Genet 37:275–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Loeys BL, Dietz HC. ( 2008, revised 2013) Loeys-Dietz Syndrome. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Bird TD, et al., editors. GeneReviews™ [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993–2013.Google Scholar
- 6.Loeys BL, Schwarze U, Holm T, Callewaert BL, Thomas GH, Pannu H, De Backer JF, Oswald GL, Symoens S, Manouvrier S, Roberts AE, Faravelli F, Greco MA, Pyeritz RE, Milewicz DM, Coucke PJ, Cameron DE, Braverman AC, Byers PH, De Paepe AM, Dietz HC (2006) Aneurysm syndromes caused by mutations in the TGF-β receptor. N Engl J Med 355:788–798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Van de Laar IM, van der Linde D, Oei EH, Bos PK, Bessems JH, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, van Meer BL, Pals G, Oldenburg RA, Bekkers JA, Moelker A, de Graaf BM, Matyas G, Frohn-Mulder IM, Timmermans J, Hilhorst-Hofstee Y, Cobben JM, Bruggenwirth HT, van Laer L, Loeys B, De Backer J, Coucke PJ, Dietz HC, Willems PJ, Oostra BA, De Paepe A, Roos-Hesselink JW, Bertoli-Avella AM, Wessels MW (2012) Phenotypic spectrum of the SMAD3-related aneurysms–osteoarthritis syndrome. J Med Genet 49(1):47–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar