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European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 171, Issue 8, pp 1193–1202 | Cite as

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Austria

  • Claudia Steigleder-Schweiger
  • Birgit Rami-Merhar
  • Thomas Waldhör
  • Elke Fröhlich-Reiterer
  • Ines Schwarz
  • Maria Fritsch
  • Martin Borkenstein
  • Edith Schober
Original Article

Abstract

Mortality of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 1 diabetes is increased 2- to 20-fold compared to non-diabetic individuals. In young adults with type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular events are more often the cause of premature death than nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Austria. In a cross sectional study data of children with type 1 diabetes <18 years of age treated at the Children’s department of the University Hospitals of Vienna and Graz were collected. We recorded body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to age, sex, age at manifestation, diabetes duration, and insulin requirement. From 264 patients (49.4% male) complete data were available. Of all patients, 76.1% had one or more risk factors, 20.8% had two or more, 10.2% had three or more, and 4.9% had four or more risk factors. Insufficient glycemic control was the most frequent risk factor, present in 60.6% of our patients, followed by elevated triglycerides (22.7%) and increased body mass index (20.1%). Higher prevalence of risk factors was correlated with increasing age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, and insulin requirement. In conclusion, children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes have a much higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors compared to non-diabetic individuals. To prevent future cardiovascular events, achieving the best possible glycemic control, early detection of further risk factors, and adequate intervention are highly important.

Keywords

Type 1 diabetes Cardiovascular risk factors Children and adolescents HbA1c Quality of metabolic control 

Abbreviations

BMI

body mass index

BP

blood pressure

CFRD

cystic fibrosis related diabetes

CVD

cardiovascular disease

CVRF

cardiovascular risk factor

DBP

diastolic blood pressure

HDL

high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol

LDL

low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol

SBP

systolic blood pressure

T1DM

type 1 diabetes mellitus

T2DM

type 2 diabetes mellitus

TC

total cholesterol

TG

triglycerides

WC

waist circumference

Notes

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there is no duality of interest associated with this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Steigleder-Schweiger
    • 1
  • Birgit Rami-Merhar
    • 2
  • Thomas Waldhör
    • 3
  • Elke Fröhlich-Reiterer
    • 4
  • Ines Schwarz
    • 4
  • Maria Fritsch
    • 2
  • Martin Borkenstein
    • 4
  • Edith Schober
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of SalzburgParacelsus Medical UniversitySalzburgAustria
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology, Center of Public HealthMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsMedical University of GrazViennaAustria

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