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European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 171, Issue 9, pp 1301–1307 | Cite as

Hematological disorders and leukemia in children with Down syndrome

  • Annelyse Bruwier
  • Christophe F. ChantrainEmail author
Review

Abstract

Constitutional trisomy 21 inherent to Down syndrome (DS) is associated with several hematological disorders occurring at different ages. Neonates with DS may present with transient asymptomatic blood count abnormalities such as neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia and polycythemia. Within 1–2 months of life, 3–10% of DS infants develop transient myeloproliferative disease. Despite a spontaneous regression in most of the cases, TMD can be fatal or lead to the subsequent development of myeloid leukemia in 20% of DS children (DS ML). DS ML has clinical and biological features that define a unique entity with a high sensitivity to chemotherapy and a favorable outcome. Children with DS also have an increased risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) characterized by a more heterogeneous pattern of genetic findings and by a higher rate of treatment-related toxicities. These features highlight the role of trisomy 21 in leukemogenesis and confirm the need of specific and adapted therapeutic approach for DS children with leukemia.

Keywords

Down syndrome Myeloid leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Transient myeloproliferative disorder GATA1 Trisomy 21 

Abbreviations

DS

Down syndrome

TMD

Transient myeloproliferative disease

AML

Acute myeloid leukemia

ALL

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

DS ML

Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome

HSCT

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-LucUniversité Catholique de LouvainBrusselsBelgium

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