European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 170, Issue 9, pp 1129–1142 | Cite as

The ‘Motorik-Modul’ (MoMo): physical fitness and physical activity in German children and adolescents

  • Alexander WollEmail author
  • Bärbel-Maria Kurth
  • Elke Opper
  • Annette Worth
  • Klaus Bös
Original Paper



The aim of the ‘Motorik-Modul’ (MoMo Basiserhebung, was to establish prevalence measurements on physical fitness and physical activity in German children and adolescents and to identify differences between age groups and genders. A total of 4,529 children and adolescents between the ages of 4–17 years from 167 cities across all states of the German Federation participated in this study. Sociodemographic parameters were recorded. Physical fitness was measured using endurance, strength, coordination and flexibility tests. Physical activity was assessed using a validated questionnaire, including aspects of physical activity participation (school/club/non-club), intensity of physical activity and type of activity. Chi-square tests and ANOVAS were used to compare groups and to detect age and gender effects, and data were compared with criterion-related guidelines by the WHO. For parameters describing physical fitness, age was the dominant influencing parameter. Many parameters showed increasing performance until the onset of puberty. Boys generally performed better than girls except in fine motor coordination during precision tasks and in flexibility. Physical activity was greater in older subjects with a greater intensity for adolescents who were physically active. The general activity level was similar to the data reported in the HBSC study by the WHO but lower than the recommended activity levels.


With the results of this study, nationwide representative prevalence data on physical fitness and physical activity are available. These data contribute to the scientific knowledge on the prevalence and conditions of physical fitness and physical activity.


Physical fitness Motor performance ability Sports Physical activity Age Gender 



The authors thank PD Dr. habil. Annegret Mündermann (Ph.D.) for her writing assistance. This study was funded by the German Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (Federal Ministry of Education and Research).

Conflict of interest

The authors do not have a financial relationship with the organization that sponsored the research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Woll
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bärbel-Maria Kurth
    • 2
  • Elke Opper
    • 3
  • Annette Worth
    • 4
  • Klaus Bös
    • 3
  1. 1.Universität KonstanzKonstanzGermany
  2. 2.Robert Koch-InstitutBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany
  4. 4.PH Schwäbisch-GmündSchwäbisch-GmündGermany

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