Advertisement

Age at menarche in a Korean population: secular trends and influencing factors

  • Geum Joon Cho
  • Hyun Tae Park
  • Jung Ho Shin
  • Jun Young Hur
  • Young Tae Kim
  • Sun Haeng Kim
  • Kyu Wan Lee
  • Tak KimEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

This study was designed to identify the secular trend in the age at menarche and to investigate the possible factors that influence the age at menarche using representative Korean data from the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey. Three thousand five hundred sixty-two women born between 1920 and 1985 were enrolled to identify secular trends in the age at menarche and 620 girls born between 1986 and 1995 were recruited to evaluate the factors influencing the age at onset of menarche. Mean age at menarche decreased from 16.90 ± 1.25 years for women born between 1920 and 1925 to 13.79 ± 1.37 years for those born between 1980 and 1985, indicating a downward trend of 0.68 years per decade (95% CI, 0.64–0.71) in age at menarche. Mean age at menarche of girls born between 1986 and 1995 was 13.10 ± 0.06 years as estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method. Among girls born between 1986 and 1995, menarcheal girls had a larger waist circumference, a higher body mass index (BMI), and lower maternal menarcheal age and maternal age at birth than premenarcheal girls. The energy and nutrient intake of protein, sugar, fiber, ash, phosphate, natrium, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin were greater for menarcheal girls than for premenarcheal girls. These data indicate a decreasing secular trend of age at menarche in a Korean population born between 1920 and 1995. Furthermore, maternal menarcheal age, BMI, maternal age at birth, and nutrition are important variables that appear to influence age at menarche in Korean girls.

Keywords

Age at menarche Korean population Secular trends 

References

  1. 1.
    Chodick G, Huerta M, Balicer RD et al (2005) Secular trends in age at menarche, smoking, and oral contraceptive use among Israeli girls. Prev Chronic Dis 2:A12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ekerbicer HC, Celik M, Kiran H et al (2007) Age at menarche in Turkish adolescents in Kahramanmaras, eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 12:289–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ersoy B, Balkan C, Gunay T et al (2005) The factors affecting the relation between the menarcheal age of mother and daughter. Child Care Health Dev 31:303–308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fredriks AM, van Buuren S, Burgmeijer RJ et al (2000) Continuing positive secular growth change in The Netherlands 1955–1997. Pediatr Res 47:316–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frisch RE, Revelle R (1970) Height and weight at menarche and a hypothesis of critical body weights and adolescent events. Science 169:397–399CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Graham MJ, Larsen U, Xu X (1999) Secular trend in age at menarche in China: a case study of two rural counties in Anhui Province. J Biosoc Sci 31:257–267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Helm P, Grolund L (1998) A halt in the secular trend towards earlier menarche in Denmark. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 77:198–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hesketh T, Ding QJ, Tomkins A (2002) Growth status and menarche in urban and rural China. Ann Hum Biol 29:348–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hwang JY, Shin C, Frongillo EA et al (2003) Secular trend in age at menarche for South Korean women born between 1920 and 1986: the Ansan study. Ann Hum Biol 30:434–442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jones LL, Griffiths PL, Norris SA et al (2009) Age at menarche and the evidence for a positive secular trend in urban South Africa. Am J Hum Biol 21:130–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kac G, de Santa A, Cruz C, Velasquez-Melendez G (2000) Secular trend in age at menarche for women born between 1920 and 1979 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ann Hum Biol 27:423–428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khan AD, Schroeder DG, Martorell R et al (1996) Early childhood determinants of age at menarche in rural Guatemala. Am J Hum Biol 8:717–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kirchengast S, Grossschmidt K, Huber J et al (1998) Body composition characteristics after menopause. Coll Antropol 22:393–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koprowski C, Coates RJ, Bernstein L (2001) Ability of young women to recall past body size and age at menarche. Obes Res 9:478–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ku SY, Kang JW, Kim H et al (2006) Age at menarche and its influencing factors in North Korean female refugees. Hum Reprod 21:833–836CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leenstra T, Petersen LT, Kariuki SK et al (2005) Prevalence and severity of malnutrition and age at menarche; cross-sectional studies in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya. Eur J Clin Nutr 59:41–48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maclure M, Travis LB, Willett W et al (1991) A prospective cohort study of nutrient intake and age at menarche. Am J Clin Nutr 54:649–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Manios Y, Kondaki K, Kourlaba G et al (2009) Television viewing and food habits in toddlers and preschoolers in Greece: the GENESIS study. Eur J Pediatr 168:801–808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meyer F, Moisan J, Marcoux D et al (1990) Dietary and physical determinants of menarche. Epidemiology 1:377–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Must A, Phillips SM, Naumova EN et al (2002) Recall of early menstrual history and menarcheal body size: after 30 years, how well do women remember? Am J Epidemiol 155:672–679CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Papadimitriou A, Fytanidis G, Douros K et al (2008) Age at menarche in contemporary Greek girls: evidence for levelling-off of the secular trend. Acta Paediatr 97:812–815CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Prebeg Z, Juresa V, Kujundzić M (1995) Secular growth changes in Zagreb schoolchildren over four decades, 1951–91. Ann Hum Biol 22:99–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simondon KB, Simon I, Simondon F (1997) Nutritional status and age at menarche of Senegalese adolescents. Ann Hum Biol 24:521–532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Towne B, Czerwinski SA, Demerath EW et al (2005) Heritability of age at menarche in girls from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Am J Phys Anthropol 128:210–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vercauteren M, Susanne C (1985) The secular trend of height and menarche in Belgium: are there any signs of a future stop? Eur J Pediatr 144:306–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wen W, Gao YT, Shu XO et al (2003) Sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors associated with weight gain in Chinese women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27:933–940CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Whincup PH, Gilg JA, Odoki K et al (2001) Age of menarche in contemporary British teenagers: survey of girls born between 1982 and 1986. BMJ 322:1095–1096CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wronka I, Pawlinska-Chmara R (2005) Menarcheal age and socio-economic factors in Poland. Ann Hum Biol 32:630–638CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wyshak G (1983) Secular changes in age at menarche in a sample of US women. Ann Hum Biol 10:75–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geum Joon Cho
    • 1
  • Hyun Tae Park
    • 1
  • Jung Ho Shin
    • 1
  • Jun Young Hur
    • 1
  • Young Tae Kim
    • 1
  • Sun Haeng Kim
    • 1
  • Kyu Wan Lee
    • 1
  • Tak Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,Korea University Anam HospitalKorea University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations