Hypercalciuria is the main renal abnormality finding in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected children in Venezuela
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Kidney involvement in children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is increasing in prevalence in parallel with the longer survival of HIV-infected patients and the side-effects of new antiretroviral drugs. However, there are only a few reports describing renal tubular disorders in HIV+ children. This is a cross-sectional, case series study evaluating kidney disease in 26 Venezuelan HIV-infected children. The study cohort consisted of 15 girls and 11 boys, with a median age of 5.9 years (25–75th percentile: 3.6–7.8), who had been treated with antiretrovirals for 2.8 ± 0.4 years, Overall, the patients were short for their age and gender (Z-height: −3.1; 25–75th percentile: −4.94 to −1.98), and 15 showed signs of mild to moderate malnutrition. All of the children had a normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (136 ± 22.6 ml/min/1.73 m2), and glomerular involvement was only observed in one patient with isolated proteinuria. None had nephromegaly. In contrast, tubular disorders were commonly found. Hypercalciuria was detected in 16 of the patients (UCa/Cr = 0.28; 25–75th percentile: 0.17–0.54 mg/mg), with five of these showing crystalluria. Eight children showed hyperchloremia, and three had frank metabolic acidosis. Kidney stones were absent in all, but one boy had bilateral medullary nephrocalcinosis. Conclusion, in Venezuelan children, HIV infection per se, or its specific treatment, was commonly associated with renal tubular dysfunction, especially hypercalciuria and acidosis, potentially leading to nephrocalcinosis and growth impairment. We recommend renal tubular evaluation during the follow-up of children with HIV infection.