European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 167, Issue 2, pp 149–154 | Cite as

A cross-sectional study of dietary habits and lipid profiles. The Rivas-Vaciamadrid study

  • Marciano Sanchez-Bayle
  • Angel Gonzalez-Requejo
  • María Jesus Pelaez
  • María Teresa Morales
  • Juliana Asensio-Anton
  • Epifania Anton-Pacheco
Original Paper


The relations between dietary habits and serum lipids have been firmly established in adults. In children, this relation has been less extensively studied. We have assessed the relations between dietary components, including the different types of fatty acids (saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated) and serum lipids and apolipoproteins in a group of 673 6-year-old children of the town of Rivas-Vaciamadrid, Spain. Children in the highest tertile of total fat consumption, when compared with children in the lowest tertile, had higher mean levels of total cholesterol (188.3 mg/dl vs. 146.8 mg/dl), triglycerides (56.7 mg/dl vs. 51.3 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (120.7 mg/dl vs. 92.6 mg/dl), HDL cholesterol (56.2 mg/dl vs. 54.5 mg/dl) and apolipoprotein B (86.8 mg/dl vs. 62.9 mg/dl). When compared with children in the lowest tertile, children in the highest tertile of saturated fat consumption had significantly higher mean levels of total cholesterol (206.3 mg/dl vs. 151.8 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (140.6 mg/dl vs. 95.1 mg/dl) and apolipoprotein B (99.2 mg/dl vs. 64.3 mg/dl) and lower mean levels of HDL cholesterol (53.5 mg/dl vs. 57.5 mg/dl), whereas children in the highest tertile of monounsaturated fat consumption had significantly higher mean levels of HDL cholesterol (56.5 mg/dl vs. 51.8 mg/dl) and lower levels of total cholesterol (133.2 mg/dl vs. 201.6 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (93.1 mg/dl vs. 137.5 mg/dl) and apolipoprotein B (68.6 mg/dl vs. 94.9 mg/dl) than children in the lowest tertile. No statistically significant relation between polyunsaturated fat and lipid levels was found. We have found a strong association between diet composition and lipid and apolipoprotein levels in 6-year-old children. Our findings strengthen the role of monounsaturated fatty acid consumption as a part of a healthy diet in childhood.


Dietary fats Unsaturated dietary fats Apolipoproteins LDL cholesterol HDL cholesterol Triacylglycerols 





high density lipoprotein


low density lipoprotein


saturated fatty acids


polyunsaturated fatty acids


monounsaturated fatty acids



The authors wish to thanks the Town Council of Rivas-Vaciamadrid for their help and support.The Rivas-Vaciamadrid study has benefitted from Spanish government grant (grant FIS 95/00812) and from financial support of the Town Council of Rivas-Vaciamadrid.


  1. 1.
    Aggett PJ, Haschke F, Heine W, Hernell O, Koletzko B, Lafeber H, Ormission A, Rey J, Tormo R (1994) Committee report: childhood diet and prevention of coronary heart disease. ESPGAN Committee on Nutrition. European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 19:261–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond W, Fu PC (1974) Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem 20:470–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Academy of Pediatrics; Committee on Nutrition (1998) Cholesterol in childhood. Pediatrics 101:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aranceta J. Perez C, Amela C, Garcia R (1994) Encuesta de Nutrición de la Comunidad de Madrid. Documentos Técnicos de Salud, n° 18. Dirección General de Prevención y Promoción de la Salud, Comunidad de Madrid, MadridGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aranceta J, Perez Rodrigo C, Eguileor I, Marzana I, Gonzalez de Galdeano L, Saenz de Buruaga J (1998) Food consumption patterns in the adult population of the Basque Country (EINUT-I). Public Health Nutr 1:185–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Assmann G, Schriewer H, Schmitz G, Hägele EO (1983) Quantification of high density lipoprotein cholesterol by precipitation with phosphotungstic acid/MgCl2. Clin Chem 29:2026–2030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Basch CE, Shea S, Arliss R, Contento IR, Rips J, Gutin B, Irigoyen M, Zybert P (1990) Validation of mothers’ reports of dietary intake by 4- to 7-year-old children. Am J Public Health 80:1314–1317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP 3rd, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA (1998) Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med 338:1650–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bucolo G, David H (1973) Quantitative determination of serum triglycerides by the use of enzymes. Clin Chem 19:476–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1997) Guidelines for school and community programs to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. MMWR 46:1–36Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness; Council on School Health (2006) Active healthy living: prevention of childhood obesity through increased physical activity. Pediatrics 117:1834–1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frank GC, Berenson GS, Webber LS (1978) Dietary studies and the relationship of diet to cardiovascular disease risk factor variables in 10-year-old children. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr 31:328–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Friedewald WT, Levu RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of LDL-cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 8:499–507Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gardner CD, Kraemer HC (1995) Monounsaturated versus polyunsaturated dietary fat and serum lipids. A meta-analysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15:1917–1927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ginsberg HN, Barr SL, Gilbert A, Karmally W, Deckelbaum R, Kaplan K, Ramakrishnan R, Holleran S, Dell RB (1990) Reduction of plasma cholesterol levels in normal men on an American Heart Association step 1 diet or a step 1 diet with added monounsaturated fat. N Engl J Med 322:574–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Glueck CJ, Waldman G, McClish DK, Morrison JA, Khoury P, Larsen R, Salz K, Rifkind BM, Mattson FH (1982) Relationships of nutrient intake to lipids and lipoproteins in 1234 white children. The Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Study. Arteriosclerosis 2:523–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gonzalez-Requejo A, Sanchez-Bayle M, Baeza J, Arnaiz P, Vila S, Asensio J, Ruiz-Jarabo C (1995) Relations between nutrient intake and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. J Pediatr 127:53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gonzalez-Requejo A, Sanchez-Bayle M, Ruiz-Jarabo C, Asensio-Anton J, Pelaez MJ, Morales MT, Anton-Pacheco E, Fernandez-Calle M, Madera-Cruz E (2003) Lipoprotein(a) and cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of 6-year-old children. The Rivas-Vaciamadrid Study. Eur J Pediatr 162:572–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grundy SM (1997) What is the desirable ratio of saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids in the diet? Am J Clin Nutr 66:988S–990SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gulesserian T, Widhalm K (2002) Effect of a rapeseed oil substituting diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Nutr 21:103–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hegsted DM, McGandy RB, Myers ML, Stare FJ (1965) Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. Am J Clin Nutr 17:281–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Howard BV, Hannah JS, Heiser CC, Jablonski KA, Paidi MC, Alarif L, Robbins DC, Howard WJ (1995) Polyunsaturated fatty acids result in greater cholesterol lowering and less triacylglycerol elevation than do monounsaturated fatty acids in a dose-response comparison in a multiracial study group. Am J Clin Nutr 62:392–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Hennekens CH, Willett WC (1997) Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 337:1491–1499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Keys A, Menotti A, Karvonen MJ, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Djordjevic BS, Dontas AS, Fidanza F, Keys MH, Kromhout D, Nedeljkovic S, Punsar S, Seccareccia F, Toshima H (1986) The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study. Am J Epidemiol 124:903–915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Klesges RC, Klesges LM, Brown G, Frank GC (1987) Validation of the 24-hour dietary recall in preschool children. J Am Diet Assoc 87:1383–1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kris-Etherton PM, Pearson TA, Wan Y, Hargrove RL, Moriarty K, Fishell V, Etherton TD (1999) High-monounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 70:1009–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kromhout D, Menotti A, Bloemberg B, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Dontas AS, Fidanza F, Giaipaoli S, Jansen A, Karvonen M, Katan M, Nissinen A, Nedeljkovic S, Pekkanen J, Pekkarinen M, Punsar S, Rasanen L, Simic B, Toshima H (1995) Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the Seven Countries Study. Prev Med 24:308–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maciejko JJ, Levinson SS, Markyvech L, Smith MP, Blevins RD (1987) New assay of apolipoproteins A-I and B by rate nephelometry evaluated. Clin Chem 33:2065–2069PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mata P, Garrido JA, Ordovas JM, Blazquez E, Alvarez-Sala LA, Rubio MJ, Alonso R, de Oya M (1992) Effect of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in women. Am J Clin Nutr 56:77–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moreiras O, Carbajal A, Cabrera ML (1992) La composición de los alimentos. EUDEMA, MadridGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morrison JA, Larsen R, Glatfelter L, Boggs D, Burton K, Smith C, Kelly K, Mellies MJ, Khoury P, Glueck CJ (1980) Interrelationships between nutrient intake and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in schoolchildren aged 6 to 19: the Princeton School District Study. Pediatrics 65:727–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    National Cholesterol Education Program Coordinating Committee (1992) The Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 89:525S–584SGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nutrition Recommendations Update: Dietary Fat and Children (1993) Report of the Joint Working Group of the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) and Health Canada. Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nydahl MC, Gustafsson IB, Vessby B (1994) Lipid-lowering diets enriched with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids but low in saturated fatty acids have similar effects on serum lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 59:115–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Paul AA, Southgate DAT (1991) McCance and Widdowson’s The composition of foods. 5th edn. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Renaud S, Attie MC (1986) La composition des aliments. Astra-Calvé: INSERM, ParisGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shea S, Basch CE, Irigoyen M, Zybert P, Rips JL, Contento I, Gutin B (1991) Relationships of dietary fat consumption to serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Hispanic preschool children. Prev Med 20:237–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    The Advisory Board of the International Conference of Cardiovascular Health (1993) The Victoria Declaration. Closing the gap: science and policy in action. Rev Sanid Hig Publica 67:77–116Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    The Lipid Research Clinics Program; The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial Results II (1984) The relationship of reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease to cholesterol lowering. JAMA 251:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Treiber FA, Leonard SB, Frank G, Musante L, Davis H, Strong WB, Levy M (1990) Dietary assessment instruments for preschool children: reliability of parental responses to the 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc 90:814–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vartiainen E, Puska P, Pietinen P, Nissinen A, Leino U, Uusitalo U (1986) Effects of dietary fat modifications on serum lipids and blood pressure in children. Acta Paediatr Scand 75:396–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Williams CL, Hayman LL, Daniels SR, Robinson TN, Steinberger J, Paridon S, Bazzarre T (2002) Cardiovascular health in childhood: A statement for health professionals from the Committee on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young (AHOY) of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Circulation 106:143–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marciano Sanchez-Bayle
    • 1
  • Angel Gonzalez-Requejo
    • 2
    • 3
  • María Jesus Pelaez
    • 2
  • María Teresa Morales
    • 2
  • Juliana Asensio-Anton
    • 1
  • Epifania Anton-Pacheco
    • 2
  1. 1.Hospital “Niño Jesus”MadridSpain
  2. 2.Primary Care Health Centre “Rivas”Rivas-VaciamadridSpain
  3. 3.Centro de Salud “Santa Mónica”Rivas-VaciamadridSpain

Personalised recommendations