Do male and female adolescents differ in the effect of individual and family characteristics on their use of psychotropic drugs?
This study assesses the effects of individual and family characteristics on psychotropic drug use among male and female adolescents. The sample included 2,396 subjects attending two middle schools and two high schools. Respondents completed self-administered questionnaires covering gender, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, tiredness during the daytime, self-reported personality traits, family conditions, and psychotropic drug use. The data were analyzed using logistic models. The prevalence of frequent psychotropic drug use (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia) was 43.0% overall; twice as high among girls than boys. Among the girls, frequent psychotropic drug use was associated with frequent tiredness during the daytime (adjusted odds ratio OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.61–2.57), smoking (2.02, 1.50–2.71), alcohol use (1.34, 1.04–1.74), higher body mass index (>18 kg/m2, 1.54, 1.16–2.04), poor family atmosphere (1.33, 1.03–1.72), and being worried (1.93, 1.53–2.43) or easily becoming irritable (1.28, 1.01–1.62). In boys the factors with significant ORs were frequent tiredness during the daytime (2.21, 1.67–2.93), alcohol use (1.52, 1.15–2.01), and being worried (1.70, 1.28–2.26) or easily becoming irritable (1.42, 1.06–1.89); univariate analysis revealed a significant relationship with smoking and family atmosphere. An association was also observed for illicit drugs in both sexes and for age≥17 years in girls. Individual and family characteristics have marked influence on psychotropic drug use among both male and female adolescents. Preventive measures should be taken to make adolescents and their parents more aware of the risks and to improve their living conditions.
KeywordsPsychotropic drug use Adolescents Sex Tiredness Family atmosphere Smoking habit Alcohol use Personality Body weight
The authors would like to thank A. d’Houtaud, E. Aptel, B. Mergel, E. Berton, P. Pierre, R. Franiatte, Y. Charron, F. Willer, J.P. Thirion, M.L. Thirion, N. Jurin, C. Mathis, F. Claudin, E. Predine, L. Benamghar, J.P. Michaely, D. Saouag, M. Weiss, M. Depesme, B. Phélut, J. Ciccone, N. Lorentz, and teachers of the schools for their help.
- 3.Baumann M, Pommier J, Deschamps JP (1997) Sociologie de la santé: comportements de «genre» chez les adolescents et psychotropes. Connexions 69:155–166Google Scholar
- 5.Bhattacherjee A, Chau N, Otero Sierra C, Legras B, Benamghar L, Michaely JP, Ghosh AK, Guillemin F, Ravaud JF, Mur JM, Lorhandicap group (2003) Relationships of job and some individual characteristics to occupational injuries in employed people: A community-based study. J Occup Health 45:382–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Chau N, Predine R, Benamghar L, Michaely JP, Choquet M, Ciccone J, Lorentz N, Aptel E, Mergel B, D’Houtaud A (1999) Déterminants socio-démographiques, individuels et familiaux d’accidents scolaires multiples. Congrès Médecine et Santé de l’Adolescent «Accidents, répétition d’accidents à l’adolescence», Poitiers, 4 DecemberGoogle Scholar
- 10.Chau N, Ravaud JF, Bourgkard E, Sanchez J, Choquet M, Meyer JP, Otero Sierra C, Michaely JP, Legras B, Guillemin F, Bhattacherjee A, Guillaume S, Dazord A, Méjean L, Tubiana-Rufi N, Schléret Y, Mur JM (2004) Relationships of demanding work conditions with fatigue and psychosomatic disorders: A community-based study. 17th international symposium on epidemiology in occupational health, Melbourne, Australia, 13–16 October 2004. Occup Environ Med 61(11):e46Google Scholar
- 16.Hoffstein V (2002) Relationship between smoking and sleep apnea in clinic population. Sleep 25:519–524Google Scholar
- 21.Legrain M, Lecomte T (1998) La consommation de psychotropes en France et dans quelques pays européens. Ann Pharmacologie Française 56:67–75Google Scholar
- 32.Prédine R, Chau N, Lorentz N, Prédine E, Legras B, Benamghar L, Pierson A, Guillaume S, Aptel E, Mergel B (2002) Les accidents scolaires dans des établissements d’enseignement général: incidence, causes, et conséquences. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publ 50:265–276Google Scholar