Medical Microbiology and Immunology

, Volume 208, Issue 6, pp 773–780 | Cite as

Rapid differential diagnosis of vaginal infections using gold nanoparticles coated with specific antibodies

  • Hossein Hashemi
  • Jaleh Varshosaz
  • Hossein Fazeli
  • Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi
  • Hossein Mirhendi
  • Mostafa Chadeganipour
  • HosseinAli Yousefi
  • Kourosh Manoochehri
  • Zahra Aliyari Chermahini
  • Lobat Jafarzadeh
  • Nafiseh Dehghanisamani
  • Parvin Dehghan
  • Hossein Yousofi DaraniEmail author
Original Investigation


Vaginal infections caused by bacteria, Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis, affect millions of women annually worldwide. Symptoms and signs have limited value in differential diagnosis of three causes of vaginitis. Current laboratory methods for differential diagnosis are either expensive or time consuming. Therefore, in this work, development of a method based on gold nanoparticles has been investigated for rapid diagnosis of vaginal infections. Specific antibodies against three main causes of vaginal infections were raised in rabbits. The antibodies were then purified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles and used in an agglutination test for detection of vaginal infections. Finally, sensitivity and specificity of this test for diagnosis of vaginal infections were estimated using culture method as gold standard. Purification of antibodies from sera was confirmed by electrophoresis. Construction of nanoparticles was proved by TEM and FT-IR methods. Conjugation of antibodies to gold nanoparticles was confirmed using XPS method. Sensitivity and specificity of gold nanoparticles for diagnosis of Candida species were 100%, for Gardnerella were 100% and 93%, and for T. vaginalis was 53.3% and 100%, respectively. Gold nanoparticle-based method is a simple, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective test for differential laboratory diagnosis of vaginal infections.


Gold nanoparticles Antibody conjugated Vaginal infection Diagnosis 



This work supported by Grant from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Grant no. 563284).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors has conflict of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossein Hashemi
    • 1
  • Jaleh Varshosaz
    • 2
  • Hossein Fazeli
    • 3
  • Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi
    • 4
  • Hossein Mirhendi
    • 1
  • Mostafa Chadeganipour
    • 1
  • HosseinAli Yousefi
    • 1
  • Kourosh Manoochehri
    • 5
  • Zahra Aliyari Chermahini
    • 5
  • Lobat Jafarzadeh
    • 6
  • Nafiseh Dehghanisamani
    • 6
  • Parvin Dehghan
    • 1
  • Hossein Yousofi Darani
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Isfahan Medical SchoolIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Drug Delivery Systems Research CenterIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology, Isfahan Medical SchoolIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  4. 4.Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable DiseaseIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  5. 5.Department of Parasitology and MycologyShahrekord University of Medical SciencesShahrekordIran
  6. 6.Department of GynecologyShahrekord University of Medical SciencesShahrekordIran

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