Serum cytokine and chemokine changes during Toscana virus meningitis

  • Jessica Rauch
  • Lorenzo Zammarchi
  • Giampaolo Corti
  • Alessandro Bartoloni
  • Alexander Schlaphof
  • Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit
  • Dennis TappeEmail author
Original Investigation


Toscana virus is an important arbovirus causing meningitis and meningoencephalitis in countries around the Mediterranean Sea. While the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been well described, less is known about the immune response in Toscana virus meningitis and a possible use of cytokine and chemokine changes for the clinical follow-up of patients. We here characterized serum cytokine and chemokine profiles from 37 patients during the acute and convalescent phase of the infection. Only few serum cytokine/chemokine changes were detected during Toscana virus meningitis. Markedly increased concentrations of IP-10, interferon-α, IL-22, and eotaxin were found in the acute phase. Levels of interferon-α, IL-22, and eotaxin remained elevated in the convalescent phase, but decreased concentrations of GM-CSF were detected.


Toscana virus Arbovirus Phlebovirus Meningitis Meningoencephalitis Cytokine 



We thank Dr. Antonia Mantella for collaboration in retrieving serum samples.



Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no conflicts of interest. No author has a commercial or other association that might pose a conflict of interest (e.g., pharmaceutical stock ownership, consultancy, advisory board membership, relevant patents, or research funding).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica Rauch
    • 1
  • Lorenzo Zammarchi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Giampaolo Corti
    • 2
    • 3
  • Alessandro Bartoloni
    • 2
    • 3
  • Alexander Schlaphof
    • 1
  • Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit
    • 1
    • 4
  • Dennis Tappe
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical MedicineHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Experimental and Clinical MedicineUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Infectious and Tropical Diseases UnitCareggi University HospitalFlorenceItaly
  4. 4.German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF)Partner Site Hamburg-Luebeck-Borstel-RiemsHamburgGermany

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