Vaccine adjuvants CpG (oligodeoxynucleotides ODNs), MPL (3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A) and naloxone-enhanced Th1 immune response to the Plasmodium vivax recombinant thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) in mice
Despite considerable efforts toward vaccine development over decades, there is no available effective vaccine against Plasmodium vivax. Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of P. vivax (PvTRAP) is essential for sporozoite motility and invasions into mosquito’s salivary gland and vertebrate’s hepatocyte; hence, it is a promising target for pre-erythrocytic vaccine. In the current investigation, the role of antibodies and cellular immune responses induced by purified recombinant PvTRAP (rPvTRAP) delivered in three adjuvants, naloxone (NLX), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides ODN1826 (CpG-ODN), and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), alone and in combination was evaluated in immunized C57BL/6 mice. The highest level and the avidity of anti-PvTRAP IgG (mean OD490nm 2.55), IgG2b (mean OD490nm 1.68), and IgG2c (mean OD490nm 1.466) were identified in the group received rPvTRA/NLX–MPL–CpG. This group also presented the highest IgG2c/IgG1 (2.58) and IgG2b/IgG1 (2.95) ratio when compared to all other groups, and among the adjuvant groups, the lowest IgG2c/IgG1 (1.86) and IgG2b/IgG1 (2.25) ratio was observed in mice receiving rPvTRAP/NLX. Mice receiving rPvTRAP/adjuvants induced significantly the higher levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), low level of detectable IL-10, and no detectable IL-4 production. The present result revealed that PvTRAP is immunogenic and its administration with CPG, MPL, and NLX in C57BL/6 mice induced Th1 immune response. Besides, the rPvTRAP delivery in the mixed formulation of those adjuvants had more potential to increase the level, avidity, and persistence of anti-TRAP antibodies. However, it warrants further assessment to test the blocking activity of the produced antibodies in immunized mice with different adjuvant formulations.
KeywordsMalaria Plasmodium vivax Vaccine TRAP Adjuvant
We would like to thank Dr. Amir Amanzadeh for his technical advice in HepG2 culturing. This study was funded by a grant (No. 747) from Pasteur Institute of Iran to S. Zakeri and also by Ph.D. scholarship to S. Nazeri.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All animal handling was in accordance with the ethical standards of the Laboratory Animal Science Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran.
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