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Medical Microbiology and Immunology

, Volume 202, Issue 5, pp 327–337 | Cite as

Epigenetic modifications induced by Helicobacter pylori infection through a direct microbe–gastric epithelial cells cross-talk

  • Lorenzo ChiariottiEmail author
  • Tiziana Angrisano
  • Simona Keller
  • Ermanno Florio
  • Ornella Affinito
  • Pierlorenzo Pallante
  • Cinzia Perrino
  • Raffaela Pero
  • Francesca LemboEmail author
Review

Abstract

One of the most fascinating aspects of the field of epigenetics is the emerging ability of environmental factors to trigger epigenetic changes in eukaryotic cells, thus contributing to transient or stable, and potentially heritable, changes in gene expression program in the absence of alteration in DNA sequence. Epigenetic response may result in cell adaptation to environmental stimuli or, in some instances, may contribute to generation or progression of different kind of diseases. A paradigmatic case of disease that is accompanied by multiple epigenetic alterations is gastric cancer, among other relevant examples. In turn, Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection has been associated as a leading cause of gastric cancer. One possible hypothesis is that Hp–gastric cell interaction initiates an epigenetic reprogramming of host cell genome that may favor tumorigenesis. Accordingly, an abundance of experimental evidence indicates that several epigenetic alterations underlie the gastric cancerogenesis process and that these alterations represent one of the major hallmarks of gastric cancer. However, several critical questions remain unanswered: Does Hp directly provoke epigenetic alterations? Which mechanisms underlie these phenomena? Based on currently available data, it is often arduous to discriminate between the epigenetic modifications directly triggered by Hp–gastric cell interaction and those alterations that are mediated by inflammation process or by many other molecular and genetic events occurring during the gastric cancer progression. We will review our present knowledge of epigenetic modifications and alterations proven to occur in host cells as a direct consequence of Hp infection.

Keywords

Helicobacter pylori–gastric cell interaction Epigenetic alterations Gastric cancerogenesis DNA methylation Chromatin modifications 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by “Progetto Bandiera Epigenomica EPIGEN”, C.N.R., by Italian Ministry for University and Research (PRIN 2009), by Progetto FARO, Polo delle Scienze e delle Tecnologie per la Vita, University of Naples, Italy, and by P.O.R. Campania FSE 2007-2013, Project CREME.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorenzo Chiariotti
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tiziana Angrisano
    • 1
  • Simona Keller
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ermanno Florio
    • 1
  • Ornella Affinito
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pierlorenzo Pallante
    • 1
  • Cinzia Perrino
    • 3
  • Raffaela Pero
    • 1
  • Francesca Lembo
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche and Istituto di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Molecolare del C.N.RUniversità degli Studi di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di FarmaciaUniversità degli Studi di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica, Scienze Cardiovascolari ed ImmunologicheUniversità degli Studi di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly

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