Medical Microbiology and Immunology

, Volume 199, Issue 4, pp 323–332 | Cite as

Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 group M quasispecies evolution: diversity and divergence in patients co-infected with active tuberculosis

  • T. Biru
  • T. Lennemann
  • M. Stürmer
  • C. Stephan
  • G. Nisius
  • J. Cinatl
  • S. Staszewski
  • L. G. Gürtler
Original Investigation


The evolution of intra-host human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) quasispecies prior and after treating active tuberculosis (TB) with chemotherapy in HIV-1/TB patients was assessed. Two time points HIV-1 quasispecies were evaluated by comparing HIV-1-infected patients with active tuberculosis (HIV-1/TB) and HIV-1-infected patients without tuberculosis (HIV-1/non-TB). Plasma samples were obtained from the Frankfurt HIV cohort, and HIV-1 RNA was isolated. C2V5 env was amplified by PCR and molecular cloning was performed. Eight to twenty-five clones were sequenced from each patient. Various phylogenetic analyses were performed. We found a significant increase in diversity and divergence in HIV-1/TB compared to the HIV-1/non-TB. For HIV-1/TB, the average rate of evolution of C2V5 env was higher than previous reports (2.4 × 10−4 substitution/site/day). Two groups of HIV-1/TB were observed based on the rate of HIV-1 evolution and coreceptor usage: A fast evolving R5-tropic dominating group and a relatively slowly evolving X4 group. The results demonstrated that active TB has an impact on HIV-1 viral diversity and divergence over time. The influence of active TB on longitudinal evolution of HIV-1 may be predominant for R5 viruses.


HIV-1 Tuberculosis Quasispecies Genetic diversity Genetic divergence X4 and R5-viruses 



We thank Prof. Peter Kraiczy for allowing us to do part of the work in the gene laboratory. We acknowledge the helpful discussions of Dr. Jonas Schmidt-Chanasi, and the excellent technical assistance of Ms. Margarethe Podporski. The work was supported by the Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University.

Ethical declaration

The research was conducted within the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki and under the terms of all relevant local legislation.

Supplementary material

430_2010_167_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (8 kb)
Online Resource 1. Type of TB diagnosis; antituberculous chemotherapy, therapy responses and drug resistance patterns of TB in HIV-1/TB subjects. (PDF 8 kb)
430_2010_167_MOESM2_ESM.xls (58 kb)
Online Resource 2. Coreceptor usage prediction of HIV-1/TB and HIV-1/non-TB using geno2pheno[coreceptor] and WEBPSSM bioinformatic tools (XLS 58 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Biru
    • 2
  • T. Lennemann
    • 1
  • M. Stürmer
    • 2
  • C. Stephan
    • 1
  • G. Nisius
    • 1
  • J. Cinatl
    • 2
  • S. Staszewski
    • 1
  • L. G. Gürtler
    • 2
  1. 1.HIVCENTER, Department of Internal Medicine IIHospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe UniversityFrankfurt, MainGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Medical VirologyHospital of Johann Wolfgang Goethe UniversityFrankfurt am MainGermany

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