Medical Microbiology and Immunology

, Volume 196, Issue 4, pp 213–225 | Cite as

The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1). Part IV: development of vaccines

  • Jindrich Cinatl jrEmail author
  • Martin Michaelis
  • Hans W. DoerrEmail author


Among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, influenza constitutes one of the major threats to mankind. In this review series epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 are discussed. This fourth part focuses on vaccine development. Several phase I clinical studies with vaccines against H5 viruses have demonstrated limited efficacy compared to seasonal influenza vaccines. To induce protective immunity two immunisations with increased amounts of H5N1 vaccine were required. Novel vaccination strategies that are egg- and adjuvant-independent, broadly cross-reactive and long-lasting are highly desirable.


Influenza Influenza Virus Influenza Vaccine H5N1 Virus Avian Influenza Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank Rouslan Kotchetkov for critical reading of the manuscript. The authors have been supported by the European Commission-funded projects LSH-CT-2004–512054 (Contract Number: 512054) and COOP-CT-2004 (Contract Number: 512864).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Medical VirologyHospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe UniversityFrankfurt/MGermany

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