Human papillomavirus-positive tonsillar carcinomas: a different tumor entity?
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are thought to be one of the causal factors in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), particularly in tumors arising from the Waldeyer's tonsillar ring. We screened 98 carefully stratified HNSCC and different control tissues for the presence of HPV DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for genital- and Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)-associated HPVs and by HPV16-specific single step PCR. Typing was performed by direct sequencing and/or sequencing of cloned amplimers. On average HNSCC showed rather low HPV DNA prevalences; 18% of the oral cavity cancers, 8% of nasopharyngeal cancers, 25% of hypopharyngeal cancers and 7% of laryngeal cancers were HPV DNA positive. In contrast, HPV sequences could be detected in 45% of the oropharyngeal cancers, particularly tonsillar carcinomas (58%). Tonsillar carcinomas were significantly more likely to be HPV positive than tumors from any other site (P<0.001). All tonsillar cancers contained oncogenic HPV types, predominantly HPV16 (13 of 14; 93%). Unaffected tonsils were available from two of these patients, but both tested negative for HPV DNA. Furthermore, no HPV DNA could be found in tonsillar biopsy specimens from control groups. Localization and load of HPV DNA was determined in HPV16-positive tonsillar carcinomas, their metastases and in unaffected mucosa using laser-assisted microdissection and subsequent real time fluorescence PCR. We demonstrated that the HPV genome is located in the cancer cells, whereas the infection of normal mucosa is a rare event. Quantification of HPV16 DNA in samples of seven patients yielded viral loads from 6 to 153 HPV DNA copies per β-globin gene copy and the load values in both locations were roughly comparable. These loads are comparable with data shown for other HPV-associated lesions. Statistical evaluation of data related to clinicopathological parameters showed a significant correlation of the HPV positivity of tonsillar carcinomas with tumor grading (P=0.008) and alcohol consumption (P=0.029). Taken together our findings show a preferential association of HPV DNA with tonsillar carcinomas. Furthermore our results argue for HPV-positive tonsillar carcinomas representing a separate tumor entity, which is less dependent on conventional HNSCC risk factors.