Advertisement

Brain Structure and Function

, Volume 224, Issue 9, pp 3309–3320 | Cite as

Structure related to function: prefrontal surface area has an indirect effect on the relationship between amygdala volume and trait neuroticism

  • Peter J. CastagnaEmail author
Original Article
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

Trait neuroticism refers to individual differences in negative emotional response to threat, frustration, or loss, operationally defined by elevated levels of irritability, anger, sadness, anxiety, worry, hostility, self-consciousness, and vulnerability to mental and physical difficulties. While functional studies have been fairly consistent when identifying regions associated with neuroticism during emotional stimuli, structural imagining studies do not tend to find a relationship between amygdala volume and trait neuroticism. There is a great deal of functional evidence that frontoparietal areas are related to the amygdala, and to emotional reactivity more generally, as a function of their involvement in emotion regulation. Specifically, top–down emotion appraisal and expression appear to involve parts of the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, which operate at least in part via the indirect modulation of the amygdala. It was hypothesized that cortical surface area and cortical thickness in regions associated with emotion appraisal/expression and emotional attention (i.e., superior frontal and rostral middle frontal gyri, respectively) would have an indirect effect on the relationship between amygdala volume and self-reported neuroticism (respectively), potentially explaining the inconsistency in the structural literature. In sample of 1106 adults, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal gyri, as parcellated by Freesurfer, were examined as potentially restricting variance in a model of indirect effects, which may elucidate the overall relationship between cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and trait neuroticism. Results indicated that, despite no association between bilateral amygdala volume and trait neuroticism, when right superior frontal surface area was entered into the model of indirect effects, a significant relationship between amygdala volume and trait neuroticism emerged. Two of the three remaining models indicated that cortical surface area had an indirect effect on the relationship between amygdala volume and trait neuroticism. These findings highlight the relationship between structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Specifically, the results indicate that when volume is related to behavior, individual differences in higher-order cortical regions, particularly surface area, may help to better understand the relationship between emotion and subcortical gray matter volume.

Keywords

Amygdala volume Pre-frontal cortex Emotion regulation Neuroticism 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Data were provided [in part] by the Human Connectome Project, WU-Minn Consortium (Principal Investigators: David Van Essen and Kamil Ugurbil; 1U54MH091657) funded by the 16 NIH Institutes and Centers that support the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research; and by the McDonnell Center for Systems Neuroscience at Washington University.

Funding

Data were provided [in part] by the Human Connectome Project, WU-Minn Consortium (Principal Investigators: David Van Essen and Kamil Ugurbil; 1U54MH091657) funded by the 16 NIH Institutes and Centers that support the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research; and by the McDonnell Center for Systems Neuroscience at Washington University. A small internal grant from Louisiana State University (i.e., Strategic Research Grant) aided in allowing for computer hardware to make storage of the data possible.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that they he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Adelstein JS, Shehzad Z, Mennes M, DeYoung CG, Zuo XN, Kelly C, Milham MP (2011) Personality is reflected in the brain's intrinsic functional architecture. PLoS ONE 6(11):e27633.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027633 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Adolphs R, Tranel D, Damasio H, Damasio A (1994) Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Nature 372(6507):669–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amting JM, Greening SG, Mitchell DG (2010) Multiple mechanisms of consciousness: the neural correlates of emotional awareness. J Neurosci 30(30):10039–10047PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson AK, Phelps EA (2000) Expression without recognition: contributions of the human amygdala to emotional communication. Psychol Sci 11(2):106–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson AK, Sobel N (2003) Dissociating intensity from valence as sensory inputs to emotion. Neuron 39(4):581–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Avinun R, Israel S, Knodt AR, Hariri AR (2019) No evidence for associations between the big five personality traits and variability in brain gray or white matter.  https://doi.org/10.1101/658567
  7. Baars BJ, Franklin S (2003) How conscious experience and working memory interact. Trends Cogn Sci 7(4):166–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barch DM, Burgess GC, Harms MP, Petersen SE, Schlaggar BL, Corbetta M, Nolan D (2013) Function in the human connectome: task-fMRI and individual differences in behavior. Neuroimage 80:169–189PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bas-Hoogendam JM, van Steenbergen H, Tissier RL, Houwing-Duistermaat JJ, Westenberg PM, van der Wee NJ (2018) Subcortical brain volumes, cortical thickness and cortical surface area in families genetically enriched for social anxiety disorder—a multiplex multigenerational neuroimaging study. EBioMedicine 36:410–428PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bjørnebekk A, Fjell AM, Walhovd KB, Grydeland H, Torgersen S, Westlye LT (2013) Neuronal correlates of the five-factor model (FFM) of human personality: multimodal imaging in a large healthy sample. Neuroimage 65:194–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blankstein U, Chen JY, Mincic AM, McGrath PA, Davis KD (2009) The complex minds of teenagers: neuroanatomy of personality differs between sexes. Neuropsychologia 47(2):599–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bouhuys AL, Flentge F, Oldehinkel AJ, van den Berg MD (2004) Potential psychosocial mechanisms linking depression to immune function in elderly subjects. Psychiatry Res 127(3):237–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brück C, Kreifelts B, Kaza E, Lotze M, Wildgruber D (2011) Impact of personality on the cerebral processing of emotional prosody. Neuroimage 58(1):259–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Buhle JT, Silvers JA, Wager TD, Lopez R, Onyemekwu C, Kober H, Ochsner KN (2014) Cognitive reappraisal of emotion: a meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Cereb Cortex 24(11):2981–2990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Canli T, Zhao Z, Brewer J, Gabrieli JD, Cahill L (2000) Event-related activation in the human amygdala associates with later memory for individual emotional experience. J Neurosci 20(19):RC99PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Chan SW, Norbury R, Goodwin GM, Harmer CJ (2009) Risk for depression and neural responses to fearful facial expressions of emotion. Br J Psychiatry 194(2):139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Costa PT, McCrae RR (1992) Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, OdessaGoogle Scholar
  18. Cremers HR, Demenescu LR, Aleman A, Renken R, van Tol MJ, van der Wee NJ, Roelofs K (2010) Neuroticism modulates amygdala—prefrontal connectivity in response to negative emotional facial expressions. Neuroimage 49(1):963–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cruikshank SJ, Weinberger NM (1996) Evidence for the Hebbian hypothesis in experience-dependent physiological plasticity of neocortex: a critical review. Brain Res Rev 22(3):191–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cunningham WA, Arbuckle NL, Jahn A, Mowrer SM, Abduljalil AM (2010) Aspects of neuroticism and the amygdala: chronic tuning from motivational styles. Neuropsychologia 48(12):3399–3404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dehaene S (2014) Consciousness and the brain: deciphering how the brain codes our thoughts. Penguin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Delaparte L, Bartlett E, Grazioplene R, Perlman G, Gardus J, DeLorenzo C, Kotov R (2019) Structural correlates of the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala and personality in female adolescents. Psychophysiology 56(8):e13376.  https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13376 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dale AM, Fischl B, Sereno MI (1999) Cortical surface-based analysis: I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction. Neuroimage 9(2):179–194PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Drabant EM, McRae K, Manuck SB, Hariri AR, Gross JJ (2009) Individual differences in typical reappraisal use predict amygdala and prefrontal responses. Biol Psychiatry 65(5):367–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Etkin A, Egner T, Kalisch R (2011) Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. Trends Cogn Sci 15(2):85–93Google Scholar
  26. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Lawton JM (1989) The relationships between neuroticism and depressive symptoms. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 24(6):275–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fischl B (2012) FreeSurfer. Neuroimage 62(2):774–781PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Fischl B, Dale AM (2000) Measuring the thickness of the human cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance images. Proc Natl Acad Sci 97(20):11050–11055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Foland-Ross LC, Sacchet MD, Prasad G, Gilbert B, Thompson PM, Gotlib IH (2015) Cortical thickness predicts the first onset of major depression in adolescence. Int J Dev Neurosci 46:125–131PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Frank DW, Dewitt M, Hudgens-Haney M, Schaeffer DJ, Ball BH, Schwarz NF, Sabatinelli D (2014) Emotion regulation: quantitative meta-analysis of functional activation and deactivation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 45:202–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Giustino TF, Maren S (2015) The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in the conditioning and extinction of fear. Front Behav Neurosci 9:298PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Glasser MF, Sotiropoulos SN, Wilson JA, Coalson TS, Fischl B, Andersson JL, Van Essen DC (2013) The minimal preprocessing pipelines for the human connectome project. Neuroimage 80:105–124PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldberg LR (1993) The structure of phenotypic personality traits. Am Psychol 48(1):26–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Goldin PR, McRae K, Ramel W, Gross JJ (2008) The neural bases of emotion regulation: reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion. Biol Psychiatry 63(6):577–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Greening SG, Osuch EA, Williamson PC, Mitchell DG (2013) The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 9(5):628–637PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Greve DN, Fischl B (2009) Accurate and robust brain image alignment using boundary-based registration. Neuroimage 48(1):63–72PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Haas BW, Omura K, Constable RT, Canli T (2007) Emotional conflict and neuroticism: personality-dependent activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate. Behav Neurosci 121(2):249–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Haas BW, Constable RT, Canli T (2008) Stop the sadness: neuroticism is associated with sustained medial prefrontal cortex response to emotional facial expressions. Neuroimage 42(1):385–392PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Hanford LC, Nazarov A, Hall GB, Sassi RB (2016) Cortical thickness in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 18(1):4–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Harenski CL, Kim SH, Hamann S (2009) Neuroticism and psychopathy predict brain activation during moral and nonmoral emotion regulation. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 9(1):1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hariri AR, Tessitore A, Mattay VS, Fera F, Weinberger DR (2002) The amygdalae response to emotional stimuli: a comparison of faces and scenes. Neuroimage 17(1):317–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hartberg CB, Sundet K, Rimol LM, Haukvik UK, Lange EH, Nesvåg R, Agartz I (2011) Brain cortical thickness and surface area correlates of neurocognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy adults. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 17(6):1080–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Honey CJ, Sporns O, Cammoun L, Gigandet X, Thiran JP, Meuli R, Hagmann P (2009) Predicting human resting-state functional connectivity from structural connectivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(6):2035–2040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hooker CI, Verosky SC, Miyakawa A, Knight RT, D’esposito M (2008) The influence of personality on neural mechanisms of observational fear and reward learning. Neuropsychologia 46(11):2709–2724PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Hyde LW, Gorka A, Manuck SB, Hariri AR (2011) Perceived social support moderates the link between threat-related amygdala reactivity and trait anxiety. Neuropsychologia 49(4):651–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jacobs C, Silvanto J (2015) How is working memory content consciously experienced? The ‘conscious copy’ model of WM introspection. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 55:510–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Jenkinson M, Bannister P, Brady M, Smith S (2002) Improved optimization for the robust and accurate linear registration and motion correction of brain images. Neuroimage 17(2):825–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jenkinson M, Beckmann CF, Behrens TE, Woolrich MW, Smith SM (2012) Neuroimage 62(2):782–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kihlstrom JF (1987) The cognitive unconscious. Science 237(4821):1445–1452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kim MJ, Gee DG, Loucks RA, Davis FC, Whalen PJ (2010) Anxiety dissociates dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity with the amygdala at rest. Cereb Cortex 21(7):1667–1673PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Kohn N, Eickhoff SB, Scheller M, Laird AR, Fox PT, Habel U (2014) Neural network of cognitive emotion regulation—an ALE meta-analysis and MACM analysis. Neuroimage 87:345–355PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Kotov R, Gamez W, Schmidt F, Watson D (2010) Linking “big” personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 136(5):768–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lahey BB (2009) Public health significance of neuroticism. Am Psychol 64(4):241–256PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Lau HC, Passingham RE (2006) Relative blindsight in normal observers and the neural correlate of visual consciousness. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103(49):18763–18768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. LeDoux JE, Brown R (2017) A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114(10):E2016–E2025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. LeDoux JE, Pine DS (2016) Using neuroscience to help understand fear and anxiety: a two-system framework. Am J Psychiatry 173(11):1083–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lim HK, Jung WS, Aizenstein HJ (2013) Aberrant topographical organization in gray matter structural network in late life depression: a graph theoretical analysis. Int Psychogeriatr 25(12):1929–1940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Marqués-Iturria I, Pueyo R, Garolera M, Segura B, Junqué C, García-García I, Jurado MÁ (2013) Frontal cortical thinning and subcortical volume reductions in early adulthood obesity. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 214(2):109–115Google Scholar
  59. Milad MR, Quirk GJ, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Fischl B, Rauch SL (2007) A role for the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in fear expression. Biol Psychiatry 62(10):1191–1194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Milchenko M, Marcus D (2013) Obscuring surface anatomy in volumetric imaging data. Neuroinformatics 11(1):65–75PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Mischel W (2004) Toward an integrative science of the person. Annu Rev Psychol 55:1–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Morris JS, Öhman A, Dolan RJ (1999) A subcortical pathway to the right amygdalae mediating “unseen” fear. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96(4):1680–1685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ochsner KN, Ray RD, Cooper JC, Robertson ER, Chopra S, Gabrieli JD, Gross JJ (2004) For better or for worse: neural systems supporting the cognitive down-and up-regulation of negative emotion. Neuroimage 23(2):483–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ochsner KN, Ray RR, Hughes B, McRae K, Cooper JC, Weber J, Gross JJ (2009) Bottom-up and top-down processes in emotion generation: common and distinct neural mechanisms. Psychol Sci 20(11):1322–1331PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Omura K, Constable RT, Canli T (2005) Amygdala gray matter concentration is associated with extraversion and neuroticism. NeuroReport 16(17):1905–1908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ormel J, Bastiaansen A, Riese H, Bos EH, Servaas M, Ellenbogen M, Aleman A (2013a) The biological and psychological basis of neuroticism: current status and future directions. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 37(1):59–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ormel J, Jeronimus BF, Kotov R, Riese H, Bos EH, Hankin B, Oldehinkel AJ (2013b) Neuroticism and common mental disorders: meaning and utility of a complex relationship. Clin Psychol Rev 33(5):686–697PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Overgaard M, Sandberg K (2014) Kinds of Access: Different Methods for Report Reveal Different Kinds of Metacognitive Access. In: Fleming S, Frith C (eds) The cognitive neuroscience of metacognition. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  69. Palaniyappan L, Simmonite M, White TP, Liddle EB, Liddle PF (2013) Neural primacy of the salience processing system in schizophrenia. Neuron 79(4):814–828PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Panizzon MS, Fennema-Notestine C, Eyler LT, Jernigan TL, Prom-Wormley E, Neale M, Xian H (2009) Distinct genetic influences on cortical surface area and cortical thickness. Cereb Cortex 19(11):2728–2735PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Peng D, Shi F, Li G, Fralick D, Shen T, Qiu M, Fang Y (2015) Surface vulnerability of cerebral cortex to major depressive disorder. PLoS One 10(3):e0120704PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Persaud N, Davidson M, Maniscalco B, Mobbs D, Passingham RE, Cowey A, Lau H (2011) Awareness-related activity in prefrontal and parietal cortices in blindsight reflects more than superior visual performance. Neuroimage 58(2):605–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Preacher KJ, Hayes AF (2004) SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 36(4):717–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Rapoport JL, Giedd JN, Gogtay N (2012) Neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: update 2012. Mol Psychiatry 17(12):1228–1238PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Rimol LM, Nesvåg R, Hagler DJ Jr, Bergmann Ø, Fennema-Notestine C, Hartberg CB, Melle I (2012) Cortical volume, surface area, and thickness in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry 71(6):552–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Russo J, Katon W, Lin E, Von Korff M, Bush T, Simon G, Walker E (1997) Neuroticism and extraversion as predictors of health outcomes in depressed primary care patients. Psychosomatics 38(4):339–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Schmutte PS, Ryff CD (1997) Personality and well-being: reexamining methods and meanings. J Pers Soc Psychol 73(3):549–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Servaas MN, Van Der Velde J, Costafreda SG, Horton P, Ormel J, Riese H, Aleman A (2013) Neuroticism and the brain: a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies investigating emotion processing. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 37(8):1518–1529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Shad MU, Muddasani S, Prasad K, Sweeney JA, Keshavan MS (2004) Insight and prefrontal cortex in first-episode schizophrenia. Neuroimage 22(3):1315–1320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Shaw P, Eckstrand K, Sharp W, Blumenthal J, Lerch JP, Greenstein DEEA, Rapoport JL (2007) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(49):19649–19654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Shaw P, Malek M, Watson B, Sharp W, Evans A, Greenstein D (2012) Development of cortical surface area and gyrification in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 72(3):191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Shin LM, Rauch SL, Pitman RK (2006) Amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampal function in PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1071(1):67–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Silverman MH, Wilson S, Ramsay IS, Hunt RH, Thomas KM, Krueger RF, Iacono WG (2019) Trait neuroticism and emotion neurocircuitry: functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for a failure in emotion regulation. Dev Psychopathol 1–15Google Scholar
  84. Sotiropoulos SN, Jbabdi S, Xu J, Andersson JL, Moeller S, Auerbach EJ, Feinberg DA (2013) Advances in diffusion MRI acquisition and processing in the Human Connectome Project. Neuroimage 80:125–143PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Spijker J, de Graaf R, Oldehinkel AJ, Nolen WA, Ormel J (2007) Are the vulnerability effects of personality and psychosocial functioning on depression accounted for by subthreshold symptoms? Depress Anxiety 24(7):472–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Tabachnik BG, Fidell LS (2007) Using multivariate statistics, 5th edn. Pearson Education, BostonGoogle Scholar
  87. Van Essen DC, Smith SM, Barch DM, Behrens TE, Yacoub E, Ugurbil K, Wu-Minn HCP Consortium (2013) The WU-Minn human connectome project: an overview. Neuroimage 80:62–79PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Wager TD, Davidson ML, Hughes BL, Lindquist MA, Ochsner KN (2008) Prefrontal–subcortical pathways mediating successful emotion regulation. Neuron 59(6):1037–1050PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Weisberg YJ, DeYoung CG, Hirsh JB (2011) Gender differences in personality across the ten aspects of the Big Five. Front Psychol 2:178PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Wilson RS, Krueger KR, Arnold SE, Schneider JA, Kelly JF, Barnes LL, Bennett DA (2007) Loneliness and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:234–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Winkler AM, Kochunov P, Blangero J, Almasy L, Zilles K, Fox PT, Glahn DC (2010) Cortical thickness or grey matter volume? The importance of selecting the phenotype for imaging genetics studies. Neuroimage 53(3):1135–1146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Wright CI, Williams D, Feczko E, Barrett LF, Dickerson BC, Schwartz CE, Wedig MM (2006) Neuroanatomical correlates of extraversion and neuroticism. Cereb Cortex 16(12):1809–1819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Wright CI, Feczko E, Dickerson B, Williams D (2007) Neuroanatomical correlates of personality in the elderly. Neuroimage 35(1):263–272PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Xu J, Potenza MN (2012) White matter integrity and five-factor personality measures in healthy adults. Neuroimage 59(1):800–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. YarkoniT T (2009) Big correlations in little studies: inflated fMRI correlations reflect low statistical power—commentary on Vul et al. (2009). Perspect Psychol Sci 4(3):294–298Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations