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Integrative stimulus-specific adaptation of the natural sounds in the auditory cortex of the awake rat

  • Yu-Ying Zhai
  • Zhi-Hai Sun
  • Yu-Mei Gong
  • Yi Tang
  • Xiongjie YuEmail author
Original Article
  • 102 Downloads

Abstract

Using oddball stimulus with pure tones, researchers have extensively investigated stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), which has been regarded as a method of novelty detection, from the inferior colliculus (IC) to the auditory cortex (AC). However, until now, it is not clear whether SSA is preserved for natural sounds or whether it exists for spatial cues in the AC. Moreover, it is also unclear whether SSA integrates different types of cues within a single modality such as sound location and sound identity. Here, we addressed these issues using two natural sounds presented at two different locations while simultaneously performing extracellular recordings in the AC of awake rats. Our data showed that SSA was present in the AC for the natural sounds, the pure tones, and the spatial locations in the neuronal population. We also found that the AC response to a double deviant stimulus (a deviant sound at a deviant location) was stronger than that to a single (either a deviant sound or the same sound at a deviant location); this finding suggests that detecting unexpected events benefits from the integration of different cues within the same modality.

Keywords

Stimulus-specific adaptation Auditory cortex Novelty detection Natural sounds 

Abbreviations

SSA

Stimulus-specific adaptation

AC

Auditory cortex

IC

Inferior colliculus

A1

Primary auditory cortex

AAF

Anterior auditory filed

CF

Characteristic frequencies

FRA

Frequency response area

IOP

Integrative oddball paradigm

SCO

Sound comparison oddball

FM

Frequency-modulated

CSI

Common stimulus-specific index

DII

Double-identity index

DSI

Double-spatial index

PSTHs

Peri-stimulus time histograms

DD

Double deviant

SID

Single identity deviant

SSD

Single spatial deviant

Notes

Author contributions

All authors contributed to the final version of the manuscript. XY designed the experiments and analyzed and interpreted the data; YYZ, ZHS, YMG, and YT collected and analyzed the data. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Funding

All experiments were supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31671081).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution (ZJU20160246).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology of Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies, College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument ScienceZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Information and EngineeringHangzhou Dianzi UniversityHangzhouChina

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